christine vincent whitney n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Christine Vincent Whitney PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Christine Vincent Whitney

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 50

Christine Vincent Whitney - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 89 Views
  • Uploaded on

Christine Vincent Whitney. Homosexuality and Civil Society Studies. Flow of Presentation. Research Methodology Problems faced by the local gay people Misconceptions and misunderstanding of our society towards the gay minority Discuss how civil our society is

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Christine Vincent Whitney' - oakes


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
christine vincent whitney

Christine VincentWhitney

Homosexuality

and

Civil Society Studies

flow of presentation
Flow of Presentation
  • Research Methodology
  • Problems faced by the local gay people
  • Misconceptions and misunderstanding of our society towards the gay minority
  • Discuss how civil our society is
  • Historically discuss the development of decriminalization of homosexuality
  • Opposing and supporting views towards the decriminalization of homosexuality
  • On-going development ( Future ) of gay people in Hong Kong
  • A comparison of homosexuality with the U.S.
slide3

Methodology

1. Interview:

  • Three interviews before with

~alocal pastor (Mr.Law),

~a local gay man ( Mr.A)

~and asexual and gender studies expert (Dr. Petula at HKU)

  • Two more interviews recently with

~a gay bar tender

~a local gay man

methodology
Methodology

2. Survey:

  • Two online surveys:

~A survey for local homosexual’s view towards the general public

~A survey for local public’s opinion and view towards gay people

  • Two past surveys results:

~Homosexuality: study of the attitude of Hong Kong People by Commercial Radio Opinion Survey Service in 1980

~Survey on Hong Kong People Attitudes towards homosexuality by Murphy. N. in 1983

methodology1
Methodology

3. Autobiographies of local gay men

  • “Tales of Party Animals vol.1 Almost Perfect” by Yezhiwei
  • “Suddenly Single” by Yezhiwei
methodology2
Methodology

4. Newspapers/ Journals

  • Oriental Daily, Severe Setback in the Gay Community by Leslie Cheung’s committed suicide, 3April, 2003.
  • Journal by the “Society of Bright Light”, 2003

5. Observation in gay bar (the Lab)

social perspective

Social Perspective

Major Problems

of gay men

in Hong Kong society

political problems
Political Problems

1. Deprived of marriage under current political system

~Government forbid homosexual marriage

2. Discourage to participate in politics

~Rare tradition of homosexuals in politics ( discussed In the later part )

social problems
Social Problems

1. Deprived of social welfares

~not allowed to queue for the public housing

~can’t sign surgery approval on behalf of their lover

~ Negative discrimination against the homosexuals social inequality

personal problems
Personal Problems

1. Family conflicts

~always conflicts with his family members

2. Difficult to make friends

~cannot have many heterosexual friends

~The public have quite negative stance towards homosexuality

personal problems1
Personal Problems

3. Emotional problems

~Always have to pretend “normal”& live with “mask” in front of friends and family members

~Feel regret for being failing to prolong my family’s root

4. Problem in seeking sexual pleasure and love

~Only allows two men to have sex after age 21; but the heterosexuals = 16

~Only a few “underground” channels to meet lovers gay bars & internet only

an interesting discovery concerning one of the identified problems
An Interesting Discovery concerning one of the identified problems
  • Rare tradition of homosexuals in politics

~Dr. Petula :the tradition development of political parties rarely mentions having homosexual members even the democratic parties

an interesting discovery concerning one of the identified problems1
An Interesting Discovery concerning one of the identified problems

~However, we find that Homosexuals are enthusiastic about politics

~survey data: near 80% of local homosexual respondents are willing to join the politics if they are given a chance

~The Tales of Party Animals vol.1 Almost Perfect ( a local popular gay autobiography ) : a lot of local homosexual people are the professional groups like lawyers, doctors, managerial personnel

~Satsanga ( a gay org.) :most homosexual people in Hong Kong are the wealthier and professionalclass.

an interesting discovery concerning one of the identified problems2
An Interesting Discovery concerning one of the identified problems
  • Have ability to be the right people for politics ( even much suitable than many heterosexuals)
  • The homosexual community is still not daring to take part in the politics
  • since they have realized the chance of being accepted by the political parties is small
social perspective1

Social Perspective

Misunderstanding & Misconceptions of gay men

in Hong Kong society

negative perceptions misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men
Negative perceptions /misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men
  • Mental illness

~unhealthy, needs to be cured/20% of our respondents claimed homosexuality is in reference to mental illness

~Aversive Shock Conditioning Therapy

~individual choice

  • Unnaturalness

~Immoral: violates the function of genitals which is to produce babies

~Marginalized/indecent/unacceptable

slide18
Bad influence on society

~ Socialization impact on the younger generation

~ “the homosexuals is sick, they have to be cured for the sake of a better society”

Thought to bear greater responsibility

Negative perceptions /misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men

slide19

Negative perceptions /misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men

  • Gender-role performances

~heterosexual concepts

~feminine characteristics

~over 75% do not differentiate their gender performance in their love relationship. They are not neither to act like females nor a man.

  • Outlook- bodies & dressings

~feminine/going to gym

~lots of diversities

negative perceptions misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men1
Negative perceptions /misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men
  • Practice ofanal sex

~60% do not practice, from the survey by “Tongzhi Discussion”

~Just as heterosexuals to express their intimacies: holding hands, hugging each other, kissing, caressing or having oral sex

slide21

Negative perceptions /misunderstandings shared by majority towards gay men

  • Sissy portray from mass media

~sissy, disgusting, awful, hypercritical

~no fixed image in homosexual circle

  • AIDS

~promicuous/1-night stand?

~Figures from the Health Department, heterosexual sex has overtaken the homosexual contact in transmitting HIV infection

~Only safe sex and not sharing the same syringe can prevent the possibility of getting AIDS effectively.

social perspective2

Social Perspective

How Civil is Hong Kong society?

how civil is hong kong society
How civil is Hong Kong society?

From the above problems and misconceptions identified we analyze that :

HK = Not very much a civil society

What is a Civil society ?

  • Respect rights of all people including the minority
  • Provide equal share of social resource like welfare
  • Allow equal opportunity for making individual own pursuit
the case of hk society treating homosexuality issue vs a civil society
The case of HK society treating homosexuality issue Vs a civil society

Not very much a civil society !

WHY?

1/ not very understand the homosexual people--> e.g bad influence in society

2/ always stereotype them negatively e.g sissy, aids, causal sex, mental illness

the case of hk society treating homosexuality issue vs a civil society1
The case of HK society treating homosexuality issue Vs a civil society

3/ not very much respect theme.g no homosexual marriage

4/ negative discrimination against their various political & social rights e.g housing & medical welfares

historical perspective

Historical Perspective

The Development of Decriminalization of

Homosexuality

in Hong Kong

historical development of decriminalization of homosexuality in hong kong
Historical Development of Decriminalization of Homosexuality in Hong Kong
  • On 14 June 1980 : the Attorney General and the Chief Justice asked the Law Reform Commission to consider the idea :

“Should the present laws governing homosexual conduct in Hong Kong be changed; and if so, in what ways”

  • In April 1983: A Report on the Laws Governing Homosexual Conduct by the Law Reform Commission  some recommendations for the present laws were suggested
historical development of decriminalization of homosexuality in hong kong1
Historical Development of Decriminalization of Homosexuality in Hong Kong
  • In June 1988 a consultation paper to allow members of the public the opportunity to express their views
  • public were invited to submit their views and opinions on the consultation paper
  • Stillno an official result of consultation published to the general public until 1990
historical development of decriminalization of homosexuality in hong kong2
Historical Development of Decriminalization of Homosexuality in Hong Kong
  • In June 1990: Because of the introduction of the Bill of Rights for Hong Kong  the decriminalization was brought back for discussion
  • The Legislative Council voted in favor of decriminalizing homosexual acts between adults in private
  • From 21 July 1991 onwards, the Crime Ordinance (Cap 200) :

“No longer charged against homosexual acts between two consenting adults in private as a criminal offense”

reasons for decriminalization of homosexuality in hong kong
Reasons for decriminalization of homosexuality in Hong Kong

Immediate factor:

Suicide of an Inspector of the Hong KonG Police Force

  • John Macleman, was found to be a homosexual and committed suicide
  • the Hong Kong government appointed the Law Reform Commission to investigate the law governing homosexuality
  • to see if any necessary changes were needed in the present laws of Hong Kong
underlying reasons 1 international trend in dealing with homosexual laws
Underlying reasons1. International Trend in dealing with homosexual laws
  • Hong Kong’s laws reflected British social and legal tradition before 1967 outdated!
  • Before 1982, Homosexuality was ceased to be criminal in England and Wales (1967) , Scoltland (1980) and NorthernIreland (1982)
  • In mostwestern European countries the laws did not proscribe homosexual behaviors
  • made legal in Canada and half of the states in U.S.
  • In China not included in the criminal code.
2 increasing influence of humanitarianism
2. Increasing influence of humanitarianism
  • The UN outlined the notion of “ human rights” in early 1950s
  • Reform of the Bills of Rights in HK in 1990
  • Both stress on respecting individual decision and rights for own pursuits.
3 increasing opposition from the local gay societies organizations
3. Increasing opposition from the local gay societies/organizations
  • Since 1980various political activities by gay organizations
  • e.g 10% Club, Tongzhi Club, Satsanga
  • These people are mostly:
  • Educated group
  • Returned from overseas
  • Liberal minded
  • Challenging to the existing socio-political system
  • Fight for gay rights in Hong Kong
historical perspective1

Historical Perspective

Opposing & Supporting Views towards

The Decriminalization of Homosexuality

supporting opposing views in hong kong
Supporting & Opposing views in Hong Kong
  • HK government: critical & harsh

~ Recruitment policy of civil servants in 1970s

~ Acts of homosexuality confined by HK law

~ Decriminalization of Homosexual Acts 1990

  • Survey findings

~ Younger: accept more/ Older: less accept

~ Not mind having gay colleagues/ friends

~ Mind having gay friends/ relatives in closer relations

supporting opposing views in hong kong1
Supporting & Opposing views in Hong Kong
  • Religion view (Christianity & Catholicity): opposing view

~Violate the designation from God

~ Devil/ dirty/ unhealthy/ sinful

~ Practice of anal sex is unsafe

~ Counseling is necessary

supporting opposing views in hong kong2
Supporting & Opposing views in Hong Kong
  • Mass Culture

(case of committing suicide by Leslie Cheung in 2003 is used & the books of “Tales of Party Animals vol.1 Almost Perfect” & “Suddenly Single” by Yezhiwei)

~ Pose discussions by both gay men & heterosexuals

~ Complex, confused feelings shared by gay men under the existing circumstances

~ Plenty of diversifications

on going development
On-going development
  • From the viewpoint of homosexuals:

~ Not specifically demand for legalizing marriage by same rights as heterosexuals in HK

  • On our society:

~ Education is essential

~ More funds and facilities in the study field of sexualities

~ More cultural programs about homosexuality

~ Interactions between government & gay organizations

gay life in hong kong

Gay life in Hong Kong—

What we have learned,

how the gay society compares to that of the U.S.,

based on field research

comparative angles through
Comparative angles through:
  • Political
  • Social
  • Personal
  • Religious

 To discuss the homosexuality issue

negative political circumstances homosexual law
Negative Political circumstances – homosexual law

Difference:

~Negative Factors: no opportunities for public housing, social welfare, right to adopt children, right to inherit if a partner dies without a will.

~If homosexual, Also, age of consent 21 for homosexuals, 16 for heterosexuals, risk being dismissed or passed over for promotion if sexual orientation revealed, organizations have trouble finding locations for political activities, couples may be rejected renting housing by landlord

  • Secrecy/ avoiding shame to one’s family is crucial to being homosexual. Homosexuals in the U.S. are generally much more open and public about these feelings. The rights they enjoy vary from state to state.
negative political circumstances homosexual law1
Negative Political circumstances – homosexual law

Similarity:

  • As in Hong Kong, homosexual marriage in the United States is banned, except for in one state-Massachusetts.
  • no desire for gay marriage in Hong Kong, both the waiter in the bar and the gay tutor at Hong Kong University did not believe that marriage was necessary or desirable,
  • whereas in the United States the gay liberation movement is much more existent, especially for the right to marry a same-sex partner.
society s view towards homosexuality
Society’s view towards homosexuality

Similarity:

  • Becoming gradually more accepting, but still face many biases.
  • Research shows misconceptions/ stereotypes across the 2 cultures.
  • Portrayed as coming from dysfunctional/abusive families or families without proper parenting skills, are considered deviants.
  • Many professional homosexuals ( in U.S., members of Congress)

Difference:

  • However in Hong Kong, lack of interest in politics, cultural representation, no desire to publicize views.
society s view towards the cause of homosexuality
Society’s view towards the cause of homosexuality
  • Similarity:
  • No strong agreement on causes of homosexuality.
  • society seems to think it is the result of a bad past or that something in their childhood caused them to resort to this practice.
lifestyles and views of the gay men
Lifestyles and views of the gay men
  • Similarities:
  • Lifestyle-- “explicit emotions/ intentions” at gay bars, “staring”
  • Look for partners who are attractive, manly, career minded, smart, “straight-acting”
  • Gay men do not like super-feminism in a partner.
  • Youthfulness and beauty are very important in gay world. (similar to U.S.)
slide47

Mentality of the gay men

  • Differences:
  • Hong Kong lack of self-esteem Chinese gay identity.
  • Families expect their children to marry and to have children, to carry on the family genes. Homosexuality prevents this- homosexuals feel they are burdening their families- often have a lot of guilt.
  • We have learned that most homosexuals do not tell their families about their sexuality.
  • This exists in U.S., but less common/ to a lesser degree. More pride exists among the gay community to join and fight against the unfair policies of the government.
slide48

Religious view’s towards homosexuality

Differences:

  • In Churches gay Christians repeatedly receive messages invalidating homosexuality.
  • Many Christians are even forced to receive aversive therapy, conversion counseling, and some are excommunicated from regular Sunday services.
  • The ministers believe that it is against the new testament and against the will of God.
  • In the U.S. homosexuality is more accepted in the religious community. Some ministers even embrace homosexuality and some become homosexuals themselves.