The Roaring Twenties. 1920s US Population: 105,273,049 (at beginning of decade). By the end of the decade: 122,288,177. The U.S. Census Bureau projected that on Jan. 1, 2014, the United States population will be 317,297,938. Unemployment 1920s: 2,132,000 5.2%.
(at beginning of decade)
By the end of the decade: 122,288,177
The U.S. Census Bureau projected that on Jan. 1, 2014,
the United States population
will be 317,297,938.
Unemployment 1990s: 5.7%
Unemployment 2003: 6%
Unemployment as of March 2014: 6.6%
Males: 53.6 years
Females: 54.6 years
For those born in 2010
in U.S.A (of all races):
Males: 76 years
Females: 81 years
343,000 (down from 1,172,601 in 1919)
Currently: 1.42 million in active Army, Navy,
Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard
851,000 in Reserves, Army and Air Force National Guard
Equivalent today to: $12,741.38
World War I
US Economy goes Global
Technology takes off
Immigration Act of 1917
Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
Calvin Coolidge (1923-1928)
Much money to be made in investments:
rich get richer.
Ensures no US citizen will be denied the right to vote based on gender.
Number of farms with running water by the end of the decade was:
Roads that had been paved for motor cars between cities left small towns isolated from the rest of the country.
Rural people were also cut off from colleges, which were becoming more and more necessary as new skills were required for industry.
For the first time in American History, more people lived in urban areas than in rural.
Four million farmers quit in the 1920s to move to urban areas
Advertising billboards and commercials
Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade
Gerber Baby Food
on January 16, 1919
This made illegal: the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes.
The Volstead Act of 1919 defined alcohol as any drink having an alcoholic content above 0.5 percent.
Its goal, in theory, was to reduce crime, poverty, the prison systems, death and disease rate, corruption, and other social problems.
Many historians believe it was a WASP backlash to exert superiority over minorities, a reaction to the overwhelming immigration of the first part of the century.
Underpaid police officers were easily bribed into warning these Speakeasies about raids and feigning oblivion about the mob.
Speakeasies united citizens of various ethnic backgrounds when nothing else could.
the so-called “flapper”:
This is the cover of a 1925 clothing company featuring the latest in men’s suits.
This issue of Life has a flapper on the cover. By 1925, when this magazine was originally published, organized sports were very popular. College football was really a big deal, as was golf and baseball, but professional football was taking off as well.
While people listened to the premiere jazz musicians of the day, they danced all kinds of new dances, including the Charleston.
Total improvisational style, meant liberation for both the artist and the audience.
Expressed the desire to break with tradition.
Jazz becomes the symbol of the new “American rebel.”
1920s Jazz Band
Music form developed in New Orleans by black musicians near the turn of the century.
A purely American creation, relied on traditional black themes and improvisation.
Would spread throughout America and be adopted by white musicians and audiences.
Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong
Developed in the late 1800s, would be used for the military during World War I.
First commercial radio station is created in 1920 with KDKA in Pittsburgh.
KDKA In The Roaring Twenties
First major film: The Great Train Robbery, 1903.
First major epic: Birth Of A Nation, 1915.
Directed by D.W. Griffiths, was about the Reconstruction South.
The Great Train Robbery
First talking movie: The Jazz Singer, 1927.
Stars Al Jolson, sees Jolson in black face in parts.
Scene From The Jazz Singer
The Jazz Singer Movie Poster
Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
Other key films.
The Four Horsemen Of The Apocalypse (1920), The Sheik (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief Of Baghdad (1924), The Torrent (1926), The Hunchback Of Notre Dame (1923), The Phantom Of The Opera (1925), Ben-Hur(1925), Wings (1927), Steamboat Willie(1928).
Phantom Of The Opera
Originally only accepted by immigrants and low-income families.
Most people who could afford it went to plays, instead going to “nickelodeons” = small, simple theaters charged five cents for admission and flourished from about 1905 to 1915.
Old 1920s Nickelodeon
Developed into an art form.
Actors, actresses, writers, and producers from Broadway begin to make the crossover.
Bring their professionalism and training techniques to the big screen.
New techniques are introduced, including close-ups, panoramic shots, lighting effects, and fade-out, capturing the realism of human emotion.
1920s Broadway Show
Targeted themes popular with the general public.
Most of the more successful movies incorporated one or more of the following themes into the story: crime, war, romance, comedy, and luxury.
Walt Disney & Mickey Mouse
Directors, producers, companies.
Columbia Pictures, RKO, Republic, Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, Universal Pictures, United Artists, Warner Brothers, Paramount, 20th Century Fox.
D.W. Griffith, Cecil B. DeMille, Erich von Stroheim.
Cecil B. DeMille
Erich von Stroheim
Created the character known as “The Tramp,” combined comedy with satire and realism.
Key movies included The Tramp, The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator.
Charlie Chaplin As The Tramp
Radiator Building, Night, New York , 1927Georgia O'Keeffe
Hopper’s famous “Nighthawks”
Key sports figures who dominated their sports and captured the public attention.
1920s Wheaties Ad Featuring Babe Ruth
The “Manassas Mauler,” dominated the Twenties with knockouts.
Greatest fight: Dempsey vs. Tunney.
Lasted fifteen rounds, with Tunney dominating the bloody bout.
Tennis: “Big Bill” Tilden.
Golf: Bobby Jones.
The Tiger Woods of the era, would win both the American and British titles in 1930.
Big Bill Tilden
Ederle was the first woman to swim the English Channel.
Weissmuller won 5 Olympic Gold Medals and 1 Bronze, would go on to play the title role of Tarzan in 12 movies.
College football was king, not the newly formed National Football League.
People associated with their alma mater or their hometown college.
Fight songs, mascots, and histories begin to develop.
Beginning of the Bowl games between champions of opposing leagues.
Rockne was the legendary coach of Notre Dame, leading the college to six national championships and a 105-12-5 record before his untimely death in a plane crash in 1931.
Four Horsemen Of Notre Dame
Grange was the most dominant running back, perhaps ever.
Averaged over 10 yards per carry in college, setting the then-single-game record of 268 yards.
The only player ever to score four touchdowns on four consecutive carries.
Played for the Bears in 1925, earning $42,000 for his first two games.
Baseball’s Golden Age.
Hall of Fame names included Lou Gehrig, Walter Johnson, Tris Speaker, Grover Alexander, Eddie Collins, George Sisler, Mickey Cochrane, Frankie Frisch, Lefty Grove, Carl Hubbell, Pie Traynor, Jimmie Foxx, Mel Ott, Paul “Big Poison” Waner, Lloyd “Little Poison” Waner, Dizzy Dean, Rabbit Maranville, Bill Terry, Ted Lyons, Max Carey, Edd Roush, and others.
The Waner Brothers
Although this was baseball’s Golden Age and the largest number of Hall of Famers came from this era, none were bigger than Ruth.
Known as the “Sultan of Swat,” is perhaps the most well-known sports figure in any sport ever.
Started his career in Boston as a pitcher, but had a talent for hitting home runs.
Soon moved to the outfield so that he could play everyday.
Would be traded to the Yankees in 1920 by Red Sox owner Harry Frizzee in order to fund a Broadway play (which failed in a week).
Ruth would go on to lead the Yankees to seven American League pennants and 4 World Series championships.
The “Curse of the Bambino” would plague the Red Sox from 1919 until their first World Series win in 2004.
Classic Babe Home Run Pose
John Dos Passos self – portrait. He was a good amateur painter.
Hemingway - 1929
Migration of the Negro by Jacob Lawrence
Wanted more equality, freedom, political participation, and opportunity.
Now settled into large, concentrated communities that would be referred to as ghettoes.
Harlem Hellfighters Returning From WWI
Even though life was hard in the ghetto, it did produce some advantages.
Enabled African-Americans to elect representatives of their own by having one solid voting block.
Stimulated self-confidence, offering economic opportunity, political rights, and freedom.
A “black world” where African-Americans could act like themselves and develop their own culture.
Harlem Ghetto In The 1920s
Largest Black city in the world, would become the cultural capital of Blacks, as well as a place for Whites to flock to experience jazz and other forms of African-American culture.
The Famous Cotton Club
Expressed a range of emotions from bitterness to joy and hope.
Included Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and James Weldon Johnston.