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US Department of Energy’s Energy-Water RD&D Program Presented at Bi-regional North America and Latin America and the Caribbean WEC Forum Mexico City, Mexico November 3-4, 2008. National Energy Technology Laboratory. Only DOE national lab dedicated to fossil energy

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slide1
US Department of Energy’s Energy-Water RD&D Program Presented atBi-regional North America and Latin America and the Caribbean WEC ForumMexico City, MexicoNovember 3-4, 2008
national energy technology laboratory
National Energy Technology Laboratory
  • Only DOE national lab dedicated to fossil energy
    • Fossil fuels provide 85% of U.S. energy supply
  • One lab, five locations, one management structure
  • ~1,200 Federal and support-contractor employees
  • Research spans fundamental science to technology demonstrations

Alaska

West Virginia

Oklahoma

Pennsylvania

Oregon

key points
Water is critical to operation and permitting of thermoelectric power plants, as well as in production of fossil energy

CO2 capture and storage has potential implications on water availability and quality

Fossil-based energy use and production will compete for limited water resources with other use sectors including agriculture, domestic, and industrial

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) actively engaged in fossil energy-water research, development and demonstration and supporting systems analysis and data management

NETL’s RD&D is part of broader U.S. national laboratory effort directed at the link between energy and water

Key Points
energy water situation in mexico
~76% of Mexico’s

electricity generated by

thermoelectric power

plants

Energy-Water Situation in Mexico

Water Use in Mexico

Source: U.S. Energy Information Agency

Source: Estadisticas del Agua en Mexico, 2007

Source: Water and Climate in Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

drought conditions and regional thermoelectric generation capacity increases
+165%

+41%

+79%

+106%

+63%

Drought Conditions and Regional Thermoelectric Generation Capacity Increases

Regional thermoelectric generation capacity by North American Electric Reliability Council Region

Sources: US Energy Information Agency & US Department of Agriculture

most states expect water shortages over next decade
Most States Expect Water Shortages Over Next Decade

Source: GAO 2003

Source: US Government Accountability Office2003

slide8
Approx. 90% of current and

future electricity

generation is thermoelectric

U.S. Electricity Generation by Fuel Type

Reference: Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (June 2008 Release)

thermoelectric generation water
Thermoelectric Generation & Water
  • 2000 thermoelectric water
  • requirements:
    • Withdrawal: ~ 136 BGD
    • Consumption: ~ 4 BGD
  • Thermoelectric power plants compete with other use sectors.

Sources: USGS, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000, USGS Circular 1268, March 2004

USGS, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995, USGS Circular 1200, 1998

doe netl water energy rd d activities
DOE/NETL Water-Energy RD&D Activities

Power Generation

  • Alternative “non-traditional” water sources
  • Advanced cooling, recovery/reuse, and treatment technology
  • Systems and engineering analysis

Oil & Gas Exploration

  • Water management technology
  • Coal bed methane and produced
  • water
  • Systems and engineering analysis

Water

Availability &

Quality

Issues

Carbon Capture & Storage

  • Geological sequestration
  • CO2 capture technology
  • Systems and engineering analysis
water energy related articles impacts on power plant siting and operation
With aquifers under stress, Fla. turns to desalination

Greenwire, June 2008

U.S. Supreme Court to hear case on power plant cooling methods

McClatchy-Tribune Regional News, April 2008

Drought Could Force Nuke-Plant Shutdowns

The Associated Press, January 2008

Sinking Water and Rising Tensions

EnergyBiz Insider, December 2007

Stricter Standards Apply to Coal Plant, Judge Rules; Activists Want Cooling Towers for Oak Creek

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, November 2007

Journal-Constitution Opposes Coal-Based Plant, Citing Water Shortage

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 2007

Maryland County Denies Cooling Water to Proposed power plant

E-Water News Weekly, October 2007

Water/Energy-Related ArticlesImpacts on Power Plant Siting and Operation

May 2006 Issue of

Power Magazine

power plant water withdrawal requirements with and without co 2 capture
30

gpm/MW net

25.7

25

22.3

20

Water Withdrawal, gpm/MW net

15

11.3

9.9

9.7

8.2

8.0

8.8

10

6.3

6.0

6.0

4.5

5

0

GE

CoP

Shell

Subcritical

Supercritical

NGCC

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle

Pulverized Coal

Natural Gas

Combined Cycle

WITHOUT CO2

WITH CO2

Source: Coal and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Power Plants,

Volume 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity; NETL, May 2007

Power Plant Water Withdrawal Requirementswith and without CO2 capture
netl water management rd d
SCR

Wet FGD

NETL Water Management RD&D

Water recovery

Evaporation & Drift

Offset freshwater use with non-traditional water sources

Turbine

Generator

Scaling control

Make-Up Water

Warm Water

CoolingTower

Steam

Moiststack gas

Cool Water

Steam Condenser

Blowdown Water

Condensate

Water recovery

from flue gas

Make-up

Water

Coal drying/

Water recovery

ESP or FF

Air Heater

Coal

Stack

Air Pollution Control Devices

fossil fuel production and water
U.S. on-shore volume of oil & gas produced waters estimated at 14 billion barrels in 2002

Average 9.5 bbl produced water per bbl oil in 2002

Older stripper wells average 10 to 20 bbl/bbl

Water Requirements for Oil Shale Production

Fossil Fuel Production and Water

Oil & Gas Production – Produced Water

  • In situ conversion processes consume ~ 0.6 barrel water per barrel oil equivalent produced

Water Requirements for Oil Sands Production

  • Mining extraction
    • Approx. 2.0 to 4.5 barrels water per barrel oil produced
  • In-situ extraction
    • Approx. 0.5 barrels water per barrel oil produced in 2006 compared to 3.5 bbl/bbl in 1985
water demand for biofuels
60

50

40

Billion Gallons

30

20

10

0

2006

2011

2016

2021

2026

Corn Grain

Wood Residues

Wheat Straw

Corn Stover

Ded. Energy Crop

Water Demand for Biofuels
  • Some water for biofuel crops such as corn will come from rainfall, but rest will come from irrigation
  • Impact on overall consumptive use of water dependent upon what biofuel crop is being grown, and where it is grown
  • Irrigated corn requires 2,000-4,000 gallons/bushel

Source: Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, National Research Council, 2008

key takeaways
Key Takeaways

Water and energy interconnected

Water critical to operation of existing thermoelectric power plants and siting/permitting of new plants

Deployment of CO2 capture and storagetechnology could impactwater availability and quality

Water impacts associated with oil & gas, tar sands, oil shale and biofuels production

DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory actively engaged in energy-water research and supporting systems analysis and data management

“Whiskey is for drinking; water is for fighting.”

– Mark Twain

slide18
To Find Out More About NETL’s Energy-Water R&D

http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/ewr/water/index.html

http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/EP_Technologies/Environmental/Env_Science/water.html

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