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Unit 7

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  1. Unit 7 Language

  2. Lead-in Activity • Warm-up • Listening Task • Real World Listening • Interaction Link • Useful Expressions • Additional Listening • Homework Argument

  3. Lead-in Activity 1. Have you ever watched people “talking” with signs? 2. Have you ever tried to guess the meanings of sign language? 3. Do you know the sign language for the English alphabets?

  4. ◎大拇指与食指勾成圆圈状,其余三指伸开称为“OK手势”,表示好极了、一切正常。◎大拇指与食指勾成圆圈状,其余三指伸开称为“OK手势”,表示好极了、一切正常。 • ◎伸出食指和中指,构成英语字母V,即Victory(胜利)之缩写,表示胜利。 • ◎用大拇指指点自己的鼻尖,而将其余四指张开对人不停地摆动,表示轻蔑、鄙视、嘲笑。 • ◎双臂交叉在胸前,表示旁观、不介入。 • ◎手掌向下,平衡地翻动一下,表示差不多,勉强过得去(just so-so)。 • ◎大拇指朝下指,表示反对、不接受(refuse)。 • ◎摩擦双掌,表示大事完毕(finished)。 • ◎两个拇指相互打绕转,表示闲极无聊。

  5. Lead-in Activity 4. Now try to learn the sign language for LOVE and I LOVE YOU. “I Love you.” “Love” Note:The sign for "love" is made by crossing both hands over your heart. (Middle of your chest.) Your hands may be closed or open, but the palm side should face toward you. I L Y Note:  The "I love you" sign is a combination of the American Sign Language (ASL) letters I, L, and Y.

  6. Part I Warm-up

  7. Language Points • demonstrate v.证明,表明 • Can you demonstrate the truth of your statement? • 你能向我们证明你这一说法的真实性吗? • overwhelming a.势不可当的,大多数的 • He had an overwhelming urge to smoke when he heard the news. • 他听到这一消息时有种不可遏制的吸烟的冲动. • identify v.确认,认出 • She identified the man as her attacker. • 她认出那个男人就是袭击过她的人. • hearing n.听力,听觉 • visual a.视觉的 • spatial a.空间的

  8. Warm Up location movement hear overwhelmingsymbol identify visual facedemonstrate space Deaf Read aloud the excerpt about sign language. Write the missing words. Make changes where necessary.

  9. demonstrated Linguistic research during the past thirty years has ____________ that American Sign Language meets all of the requirements for human languages --- it is a rule-governed, grammatical _______ system that changes over time and that members of a community share. Indeed, the linguistic research in this area is so _____________ that the question of whether signed languages are languages is rarely debated anymore. symbol overwhelming

  10. Just as spoken words are formed from “parts”, such as vowel sounds and consonant sounds, so are the signs in any sign language. But the “parts” of signs are not sounds. Rather the “parts” of a sign are specific hand shapes, __________ of the hand, and specific _________ of the hand. For example, the Dictionary of American Sign Language, the first such dictionary bases on linguistic principles, lists 18-19 hand shapes, 24 movements, and 12 locations. But, non-professionals might wonder how it is that linguists were able to________these specific hand shapes, movements, and locations. movements locations identify

  11. deaf British sign language is the preferred language of over 70,000 ______ people, for whom English may be a second or third language, although over 100,000 ________people who have a proficiency in the language also use it. British Sign Language is a _______ and ________ language, which is governed by its own grammatical rules using hand shapes, hand movements and ______expressions to convey meaning. The grammatical rules of BSL are completely different from the rules of English. hearing visual spatial facial

  12. Pair work • Try to “talk” to your partner with hand shapes, body movements and facial expressions. Can you make yourself understood?

  13. Oral Preview How do you express the following ideas in idiomatic English? S: I’m stumped by the idioms in this passage. Can I _______ (推测) the meaning from the ______________(字面含义) of the individual words of each idiom? T: No, you are not supposed to do so, because an idiom is an expression whose ________________(引申意义) are known through _____________ (约定俗成的用法). S: You mean the meaning of an idiom is not a direct combination of its parts. deduce literal definition figurative meanings conventional use

  14. Oral Preview How do you express the following ideas in idiomatic English? T: No. As a matter of fact, their meanings __________________________________ (从字面含义经常难以追溯) of their assembled parts. S: Well, can I change a word in an idiom for its _________(它的同义词) if I don’t remember the exact idiom? T: No. Any word in an idiom cannot be substituted. Besides, you can not ____________________________(改变它的句法结构). are often not traceable to a literal meaning synonym transform the syntactic structure

  15. Part II Listening Task 1

  16. Language Points • approximately ad.大约 • It cost approximately $200 --- I can’t remember exactly. • 价钱大约是200美元,我记不清了. • immersion n.沉浸,专心 • emergence n.出现,显露

  17. Look at the pictures. What are they about?

  18. Look at the pictures. What are they about? First Listening How the Chinese-learning program in the U.S. is supported by the government? $700,000 from the Ministry of Education $700,000 from the Defense Department $1.3 million from the Senate $1.3 billion from the Senate Donation from Woodstock’s principal Donation from the communities Others ______________ Check-up

  19. Look at the pictures. What are they about? First Listening How the Chinese-learning program in the U.S. is supported by the government? $700,000 from the Ministry of Education √ $700,000 from the Defense Department $1.3 million from the Senate √ $1.3 billion from the Senate Donation from Woodstock’s principal Donation from the communities Others ______________

  20. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. 4. About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun. Check-up

  21. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. 4. About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun.

  22. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. F Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. 4. About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun.

  23. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. F Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. F 4. About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun.

  24. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. F Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. F 4. T About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun.

  25. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. F Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. F 4. T About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. F Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun.

  26. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about the Chinese-learning program? Decide whether the statements are true or false. 1. F Most of the students start learning Chinese when in elementary school. 2. F Jessica Bucknam is a native American who has been to China. Students can continue studying Chinese in high school and university. 3. F 4. T About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. 5. F Isabel Weiss is a ninth-grader. 6. Isabel Weiss is learning Chinese for more opportunities for jobs in the future rather than for fun. F

  27. Third Listening Listen again and practice orally. 1. Discuss the questions with your partner. Make notes while discussing. 1) What do you know about Jessica Bucknam? 2) How do students learn Chinese? 3) What is the goal of their learning Chinese? 4) Is the government very supportive? 5) What can we infer from what the principal says?

  28. Third Listening Listen again and practice orally. 2. Suppose you were the principal of Woodstock Elementary School, introduce your Chinese-learning program to a group of visiting teachers from China. Your introduction should: 1) include a. teachers; b. students’ activities; c. the government’s supports 2) be based on the notes you made while discussing Check-up

  29. Third Listening Answers Listen again and practice orally. 1.1) from China / introduces the students to … 2) read …, sing … and learn …, all in Chinese 3) to speak like natives 4) Yes. Financial support. For example … 5) open-ended. 2. Open-ended.

  30. Script Jessica Bucknam shouts “tiao!” (tee-ow) [跳] and her fourth-grade students jump. “Dun!” (doo-wen) [蹲] she commands, and they crouch. They giggle as the commands keep coming in Mandarin Chinese. Most of the kids have studied Chinese since they were in kindergarten. They are part of a Chinese-immersion program at Woodstock Elementary School, in Portland, Oregon. Bucknam, who is from China, introduces her students to approximately 150 new Chinese characters each year. Students read stories, sing songs and learn math and science, all in Chinese.

  31. Script Half of the students at the school are enrolled in the program. They can continue studying Chinese in middle and high school. The goal: to speak like natives. About 24,000 American students are currently learning Chinese. Most are in high school. But the number of younger students is growing in response to China’s emergence as a global superpower. The U.S. government is helping to pay for language instruction. Recently, the Defense Department gave Oregon schools $ 700,000 for classes like Bucknam’s. The Senate is considering giving $ 1.3 billion for Chinese classes in public schools.

  32. Script “China has become a strong partner of the United States,” says Mary Patterson, Woodstock’s Principal. “Children who learn Chinese at a young age will have more opportunities for jobs in the future.” Isabel Weiss, 9, isn’t thinking about the future. She thinks learning Chinese is fun. “When you hear people speaking in Chinese, you know what they’re saying,” She says. “And they don’t know that you know.” Want to Learn Chinese? You have to memorize 3,500 characters to really know it all! Start with these Chinese characters and their pronunciations.

  33. Part II Listening Task 2

  34. Language Points • deduce v.推断,演绎 • Detectives deduced from the clues who had committed the crime. • 侦探根据所掌握的线索推断出作案的人. • figurative a.比喻的 • assimilate v.同化,吸收 • The USA has assimilated people from many different countries. • 美国同化了来自许多国家的人. • traceable a.可追溯的 • radical n.根,基 • pictographic a.象形文字的

  35. Look at the pictures. What are they about?

  36. Look at the pictures. What are they about? First Listening Idioms are _____________. expressions whose actual meanings are deduced from the literal definitions. expressions whose figurative meanings are known through conventional use. expressions which tend to confuse those already familiar with them. expressions used only in English. Others ______________ Check-up

  37. Look at the pictures. What are they about? First Listening Idioms are _____________. expressions whose actual meanings are deduced from the literal definitions. expressions whose figurative meanings are known through conventional use. √ expressions which tend to confuse those already familiar with them. expressions used only in English. Others ______________

  38. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Second Listening What do we know about idioms? 1. An idiom is an expression whose meaning cannot be deduced from the ______ definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but refers instead to a ________ meaning that is known only through ____________use. 2. In order not to be ________ by idioms, students of a new language should learn its _________ expressions the way they learn its other words and expressions. 3. Many Chinese characters are also idiomatic_________. Because all characters are composed from a relatively small base of more than ____ radicals, their assembled meanings follow several different modes of ____________ --- from the pictographic to the metaphorical to those whose _______ meaning has been lost in history. literal figurative conventional confused idiomatic constructs 200 interpretation original

  39. Third Listening Look at the pictures. What are they about? Listen again and practice orally. 1. Listen and supply the missing words. An idiom ___ ___ ___ whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but ____ instead ____ a figurative meaning that is known only through conventional use. 2. How do you describe the above statement? Is it a description, a definition, an argument or what else? Discuss with your partner. 3. What sentence patterns do we use when we define a term? Write down at least 2 patterns and compare your answers with your partner. 4. Try to define “idiom” in your own words. Check-up

  40. Look at the pictures. What are they about? Third Listening Listen again and practice orally. 1. Listen and supply the missing words. An idiom isanexpression whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through conventional use. 2 – 4. Open – ended.

  41. Script An idiom is an expression whose meaning cannot be deduced from the literal definitions and the arrangement of its parts, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through conventional use. In the English expression to kick the bucket, a listener knowing only the meaning of kick and bucket would be unable to deduce the expression’s actual meaning, which is to die. Although kick the bucket can refer literally to the act of striking a bucket with a foot, native speakers rarely use it that way.

  42. Script Idioms hence tend to confuse those not already familiar with them; students of a new language must learn its idiomatic expressions the way they learn its other vocabulary. In fact many natural language words have idiomatic origins, but have been sufficiently assimilated so that their figurative senses have been lost. Interestingly, many Chinese characters are likewise idiomatic constructs, as their meanings are more often not traceable to a literal meaning of their assembled parts, or radicals. Because all characters are composed from a relatively small base of about 214 radicals, their assembled meanings follow several different modes of interpretation --- from the pictographic to the metaphorical to those whose original meaning has been lost in history.

  43. Some American Idioms • Knock Someone's Socks Off • 让某人的袜子都掉下来,那肯定是太激动,这句话就是形容激动,兴奋. Hi, John. What's new ? Oh, nothing too much with me, but you ought  to see Fredo's new car. It'll knock your socks  off! So, he finally got that Italian sports car he's  been dreaming about. He sure did. When you see all the custom  features that it has, you'll get so enthused and excited  you won't know what to do. Boy, I can hardly wait to go for a ride in it.

  44. Cat Got Your Tongue? • 猫叼了你的舌头,还能说话吗?不能,这句话的意思就是不出声了, Come on, Connie! Tell us what you think about our little ride down the rapids yesterday. Well, uh... Wasn't it exciting?  I, uh... What's the matter? Cat got your tongue? If you must know, I'm keeping quiet because I was scared out of  my wits! • Scratch Someone's Back • -----帮某人抓背,挠痒, 也就是帮忙的意思了. Hey, Bea. I need some help stacking these boxes. Would you  please give me a hand? OK. And I need some help tidying up the house. How about your  helping me out after that ? OK. If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours. I know you don't like doing housework, but I'll help you with the  boxes if you promise to return the  favor. No problem. I'll even do the windows.

  45. Pair Work You and your partner write down two terms on a piece of paper respectively and try to define them. After that please consult the dictionary and learn the definitions in the dictionary.

  46. Part III Real World Listening

  47. Language Points • colloquial a.口语的,会话的 • translatable a.可译的 • metaphorical a.隐喻的

  48. Prepare At the end of the lecture, Professor Lee is answering students’ questions on idiom-culture relationship and common features of idioms. What questions do you think students are asking? Are idioms and culture closely related? How does culture influence the meanings of idioms? Are all idioms translatable across languages? What are the difference between idioms and other expressions in vocabulary? How to use idioms? Are there any idioms whose meanings can be deduced literally across languages? Others_______ Now listen and check

  49. Prepare At the end of the lecture, Professor Lee is answering students’ questions on idiom-culture relationship and common features of idioms. What questions do you think students are asking? Are idioms and culture closely related? How does culture influence the meanings of idioms? √ Are all idioms translatable across languages? √ What are the difference between idioms and other expressions in vocabulary? How to use idioms? Are there any idioms whose meanings can be deduced literally across languages? Others_______

  50. Get The Main Ideas Decide whether the following statements are true or false. 1. All idioms can only be understood within a local culture. 2. Idioms are often written collocations. 3. 80% of idioms are translatable across languages. 4. The meaning of an idiom is not a direct combination of its parts. 5. Any word in an idiom can not be replaced by its synonyms. 6. The syntactic structure of an idiom cannot be transformed. Check-up