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Unit 4. Kelsay Clark, Reese Konkle , Drew Gary, Anna Nguyen, Taler Thomas. What are some major historical weather events and what effects did they have?. Kelsay Clark. Texas tornadoes 2012.

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unit 4
Unit 4

Kelsay Clark, Reese Konkle, Drew Gary, Anna Nguyen, Taler Thomas

texas tornadoes 2012
Texas tornadoes 2012

On April 3, 2012, 22 tornadoes roared through the Dallas-Fort Worth region and across parts of northeastern Texas, causing major damage and several injuries. They tore down power lines and threw trucks around like toys. The weather service said "considerable damage" had been reported near Cleburne, south of Fort Worth, and Lancaster, south of Dallas. The Dallas Fort Worth Airport reported that the tornadoes had damaged 110 aircraft. Luckily, though there the damage was recorded at $1.3 billion, no one died.


hurricane sandy
Hurricane Sandy

In October of 2012, a hurricane hit the east coast, killing 148 people. An estimated amount of $82 billion dollars in damage was delivered to New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.

texas arizona and new mexico wildfires
Texas, Arizona, and New mexico wildfires

From sprint to fall in 2011, wildfires plagued Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. Over 3 million acres were burned in Texas alone adding to total damage costs at $1 billion. Five deaths were reported.

groundhog day blizzard
Groundhog day blizzard

January 29 through February 3, 2011, there was a blizzard affecting central, eastern, and northeastern states. Chicago was at a standstill. The storm caused $1.8 billion in damages and 36 deaths.

super typhoon haiyan
Super typhoon haiyan

TyphoonHaiyan hit the Phillipines. The tropical storm caused 5,209 deaths and $288 million in damages. About 23,000 had been injured and many more left without homes. This typhoon was one of the most powerful storms ever to make landfall.

typhoon haiyan video
Typhoon haiyan video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ke6ureLcpkk
what is lightning
What is Lightning?

LIGHTNING, is a natural discharge of the static electricity built up in storm clouds.

Most Common Types of Lightning

  • Intra-cloud- Happens completely inside the cloud.
  • Cloud to Ground- Occurs between the cloud and the ground.
  • Cloud to Cloud- Lightning that stays between two clouds.
so what happens
So what Happens?
  • Over time more of one charge builds until its natural attraction to the opposite charge causes it to migrate in an electric discharge.
  • As water changes states during cloud formation an extra charge is developed and separated by water molecules.
cumulonimbus clouds
Cumulonimbus Clouds
  • cumulonimbus clouds are the main type of cloud involved in the formation of lightning because the rising and sinking of air involved causes a bumping of air and water molecules
      • associated with thunderstorms and atmospheric instability
lightning video
Lightning video

Video Lightning formation

3 kinds of natural disasters
3 kinds of natural disasters
  • Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and hurricanes are cause differently from one to another.
  • Earthquakes is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
  • Volcanoes is an opening, or rupture, in the surface or crust of the Earth.
  • Hurricanes is a storm with a violent wind, in particular a tropical cyclone.
  • Earthquakes occur when pressure between two tectonic plates is so intense that the plates shift their positions suddenly.
  • All earthquakes are measured on Richter scale to find out intensity and magnitude. The Richter scale ranges from 1 to 10, 1 being weak and 10 being very strong.
earthquakes continued
Earthquakes continued.
  • Intensity- the measurable amount of a property, such as force, brightness, or a magnetic field.
  • Magnitude- the great size or extent of something.
  • Earthquakes can occur on land or underwater, however if underwater the earthquake can make a tsunami or underwater volcanic eruption.
  • Volcanoes occur at plate boundaries as two tectonic plates separate and magma force its way out to the surface.
  • Magma-hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.
  • Hurricanes can occur if:

-ocean water surface is warm enough.

-atmospheric moisture from sea water evaporation must combine with that heat and energy.

-a wind pattern must be nearby that spirals inward.

  • Hurricane winds in the northern hemisphere circulate in a counterclockwise and in the southern hemisphere circulate clockwise..
hurricane continued
Hurricane continued.
  • Hurricane eye- a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones.
  • Because I didn’t talk much about volcanoes. I found this video to talk about it!
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BAR3P3Fshok

By: Reese Konkle

first off what is weather
First off, what is weather?
  • Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
  • It mainly occurs in the troposphere
  • It is driven by air pressure, the force exerted on a surface by the weight of the air above it, differences moving from place to place.
now what causes weather
Now, what causes weather?
  • Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbital parameters affected the amount and distribution of solar energy, the energy produced by the sun, received by the Earth and influence long-term climate.
  • The uneven solar heating can also be due to form of cloudiness and precipitation.
  • Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences.
how does this effect earth
How does this effect Earth?
  •  Weather breaks down the rocks and soils into smaller fragments and then into their constituent substances.
  • Acid rain is a cloud or rain droplets containing pollutants, such as oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, to make them acidic
  • During rains precipitation, the water droplets absorb and dissolve carbon dioxide from the surrounding air (causes rain to be slightly acidic)
  • Sediment deposits in the lakes and oceans, reform in time and by geological forces into other rocks and soils
how does weather effect humans
How does weather effect humans?
  •  Climate changes have caused the gradual drift of populations (the desertification of the Middle East, and the formation of land bridges during glacial periods)
  • Hurricanes are severe tropical cyclones with sustained winds over 74 mph.
  • Hurricane Katrina redistributed over one million people from the central Gulf coast elsewhere across the United States
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbJaMWw4-2Q
general information overview
General Information/ Overview
  • When air masses meet, weather is created.
  • These air masses fight each other, the cold air pushes the hot air upwards. When going up, the temperature drops and the air can’t hold as much water when it is warm, so the cold water molecules condense and form clouds.
  • If a mass of cold air meets a mass of warm air, a front is then created.
  • This weather is dependent on the type of air mass and climate of the region in which it is formed.
  • When two air masses meet a fronts, cyclonic rain occurs.
  • 1. Continental Air Mass- An air mass characterized by dry air near the surface while maritime air masses are moist.
  • 2. Polar Air Mass- An air mass characterized by cold air near the surface while tropical air masses are warm or hot.
  • 3. Arctic Air Mass- An air mass characterized by extremely cold temperatures.
  • 4. Source Region- The extensive region of the earth’s surface where large masses of air having uniform temperature and humidity characteristics of the region originate.