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Ecosystems and Food Webs

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Ecosystems and Food Webs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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What are the components in an ecosystem?. Ecosystems and Food Webs. 10 MINUTES. I will come around to answer AND ask questions. Ecology and Life. Ecology - study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

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Presentation Transcript
10 minutes
  • I will come around to answer AND ask questions
ecology and life
Ecology and Life

Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment

  • Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients

Ecosphere or Biosphere

    • All earth's ecosystems
  • Ecosystem
    • Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy
  • Community
    • Complex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganisms
  • Habitat
    • Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives
  • Genetic Diversity
    • Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions
  • Population
    • Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time
type of nutrients
Type of Nutrients
  • Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce
  • Ex: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,
  • nitrogen… etc
  • Nutrient
  • Macronutrient
    • nutrient that organisms need in large amount
    • Ex: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etc
  • Micronutrient
    • nutrient that organism need in small amount
    • Ex: zinc, sodium, copper… etc
  • Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%)
  • Nuclear fusion
  • Sun has existed for 5 billion years
  • Sun will stay for another 5-6 billion years
  • Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone
solar energy
Solar Energy
  • 72% of solar energy warms the lands
  • 0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria
  • Powers the cycling of matter and weather system
  • Distributes heat and fresh water
living organisms in ecosystem
Living Organisms in Ecosystem

Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.

  • Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun
  • Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue
  • Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight
    • Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs
    • Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat
consumers or heterotrophs
Consumers or Heterotrophs
  • Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains
  • Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers
  • Feed directly on producers
    • Deer, goats, rabbits

  • Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers
  • Feed only on primary consumer
    • Lion, Tiger
  • Tertiary (higher-level) consumer
  • Feed only on other carnivores
    • Wolf
  • Omnivores- consumers that eat both plants and animals
    • Ex: pigs, humans, bears
  • Scavengers- feed on dead organisms
    • Vultures, flies, crows, shark
  • Detritivores- live off detritus
    • Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.
  • Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.
  • Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms
    • Food sources for worms and insects
    • Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers
range of tolerance
Range of Tolerance
  • The range of conditions that must be maintained for a population of a species to survive
    • Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age.
    • Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass
limiting factor
Limiting Factor
  • too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.
    • Ex: water, light, and soil
    • No water in the desert limit growth of plants
    • Ex: Farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.
dissolved oxygen content
Dissolved Oxygen Content
  • Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.
    • Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem
what is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance
What is the difference between limiting factor and range of tolerance
  • Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that limit the growth of a species, while the range of tolerance defines the set of conditions in which an organism can survive. -
  • Learn about a specific ecosystem situation…. Be prepared to share out tomorrow!
  • Aerobic Respiration
    • Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water
    • Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy
  • Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation
    • Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen