China, Japan, Korea Ceramic History
Neolithic China • Settlements developed along the two main river systems. • In the North, the Yellow River • In the South, the Yangzi River • North, wheat, corn, soybeans • South, rice • Pottery first coiled perhaps 18,000 BCE. Potter’s wheel introduced 3000 BCE
The Emperors Army Emperor Ch’in Shih-huang-ti Qin Dynasty 221-206 BCE
Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi Shaanxi Province, China 210 B.C.E.painted terracotta
The Han Dynasty 206 – 0 BCEDevelopment of the Silk Road, Expansion and TradeDevelopment of early porcelain object for trade.
Press Molds continued to be used to create large ceramic pieces for tombs. Horse and chariot from Han Dynasty.
Hunping (Soul Vases), Han through Six Dynasty PeriodSculptural compositions on the lid of the pot.
HunpingNote the row of Buddhas, this is one of the first representations of Buddha in China. Buddhism arrived in the Han Dynasty.
Most of what we know about early Asian architecture is derived from clay models such as this Han Dynasty house that was placed in a tomb.
Figurines of court attendants, like these jesting entertainers, were placed in the tombs of nobility.
Wu Ti´s reign (141-87 B.C.) was a period of great military expansion during the Han Dynasty. He expanded China’s borders into Vietnam and Korea and pushed north and west. Wu Ti transplanted an estimated 2 million people to the northwestern region in order to colonize these areas. One of the great prizes of northern expansion was the discovery of “Celestial Horses” – large, strong bodied horses that were imported into central and southern China. The horse is one of the most common motifs in Chinese art of this period.
After the Han, Chinese history enters into a period of competing kingdoms and dynasties that lasts until the Tang Dynasty is established in 618. Trade along the Silk Road continues and the horse continues to be venerated. Brick, Sui Dynasty, 265-589 CE
Chinese art often depicts fantastic, spiritual animals. They too appear as figurines.
Tang Dynasty 618-906The Tang was a period of political stability, wealth, expanding trade and cultural flowering. Ceramic figurines depicted trade animals, foreigners and court life.
Tang Dynasty 618-906 • The Tang was a period of political stability, wealth, expanding trade and cultural flowering. Ceramic figurines depicted trade animals, foreigners and court life.
Tang Sancai or Tri-Color Glaze Mineral oxides were added to a lead based low-fire glaze to achieve the characteristic yellow, brown and green Tang Glazes. The clay was a low fire red clay. Throughout the early and middle Tang they were a primary export. Horse 8th to 9th century C.E.20 in. highglazed earthenware
The Tang Dynasty also saw the beginning of the porcelain export trade in China. By the end of the Tang, porcelain had replaced earthenware as the primary clay of export. Phoenix Vase, British Museum, Late Tang Dynasty.
Yaozhou Ware describes the carved pottery produced by a kiln complex in central China from the late Tang Dynasty, through the Song, to the Yuan Dynasty. Stoneware clay. High Fire.
A master dish would have been carved and fired, from which a convex ‘hump-mould’ was taken. This mould then acted as the template for multiple dishes to be formed. The glaze was then applied, pooling in the crevices and laying thinly on raised areas. Through firing, the pooled areas grew darker in colour and the thinly glazed areas more transparent, thus creating illusion of light and shadows in the surface design.
Robert Jacobson on the mold making procedure for Tang and then Five Dynasties ceramics. Jacobson is the curator of Asian Art at the Minneapolis Institue of Art. Yeah, basically the way this goes—keep in mind if you will a kind of ceramic mound that's been carved; this very floral design has been carved around that. This is hard—it's fired. What the Chinese potters would do is simply take the clay, push it down until it covered the entire mound, and then pare it down on the wheel to the thinness that we see here. They allowed it to dry a bit, and then simply popped it off and would have had this design worked into it.
Song Dynasty CeramicsElegant Court Porcelain, Expressionistic Glazes and Gestural “Village Ware” • Northern Celadon - porcelain clay and celadon glaze.
In the Song Dynasty there were five famous kilns: Ru Kiln, Imperial Kiln, Jun Kiln, Ge Kilin and Ding Kiln. This crackle glaze is typical of Ge Ware. Guan ware, pictured in your book, is another prized type of crackle ware. These works contrast the simple, refined form of the vase with the spontaneity of the cracks which vary with each piece.
Jun Ware • It can be identified visually by its coarse stoneware body and its thickly applied glaze, which through firing gained an opalescent blue colour. At the edges the glaze ran thin, becoming semi-transparent and creating the simple and elegant colouring of this piece. While some Jun wares use only the blue glaze, it was also common to apply copper brushwork to dry glazes in broad strokes or washes, which then merged with the bluish Jun glazes at full heat. This resulted in the bold splashes of purple-red visible in this bowl.
Cizhou Ware • This pillow is an example of Cizhou ware, a type of ceramic made in the northern part of China during the Jin dynasty (1115-1234). The term Cizhou encapsulates a range of wares made in several regions of northern China, often consisting of a stoneware body decorated with a bold design.Ceramic pillows were an important item in the kilns producing Cizhou wares, and were made for both funerary use and as a neck support for the living.
Meiping vase 960-1127 C.E.Stoneware, Cizhou type with sgraffito decoration