Walt Whitman • May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892 • Left school at age 11 to work and bring in money for his family. Jobs included printing, publishing, teaching, writing, journalist, etc. • As early as 1850, he began writing what would become Leaves of Grass.
Walt Whitman’s Poetry • Whitman felt that the strength of the republic lay in its hardworking, patriotic citizens. • He observed those citizens, jotting impressions of everyday scenes in a notebook.
Walt Whitman and the Civil War • “The expression of American personality through this war is not to be looked for in the great campaign and the battle-fights. It is to be looked for in the hospitals, among the wounded.” Ward K, Armory Square Hospital, Washington, D.C. [August 1865] Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division
Walt Whitman and the Civil War • Brother George immediately enlisted in the Army. • His descriptions of battles gave soldier’s feelings/reactions to the war. • In December 1862, Walt saw the name of his brother listed among the wounded at Fredericksburg.
Walt Whitman and the Civil War • Visited military hospitals first in NY, then DC. "a heap of amputated feet, legs, arms, hands, & a full load for a one-horse cart." • Worked as a clerk in several gov’t offices, but mostly interested in helping troops.
Emancipation Proclamation • President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 • It freed all slaves in the Confederate States • Slaves in the border states were not freed yet • This was the building block to the 13th Amendment to the Constitution
The 13th Amendment • The 13th Amendment completely abolished slavery and prohibits it’s existence today • At the time it was passed, slavery was only legal in Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland and New Jersey • The 13th Amendment freed the remaining slaves in those states • Although President Lincoln proposed the 13th Amendment, he was assassinated before it was passed
John Wilkes Booth • On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth entered Ford’s Theater and assassinated President Abraham Lincoln • Booth was a Southerner that did not agree with President Lincoln’s views on slavery
Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln • “I see the President often. I think better of him than many do. He has conscience and homely shrewdness; conceals an enormous tenacity under his mild, gawky Western manner. The difficulties of his situation have been unprecedented in the history of statesmanship. That he has conserved the government so far is a miracle.” - April 27, 1864
Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln • Whitman was devastated by Lincoln’s assassination and wrote “O Captain! My Captain!”
Poetic Devices Poems appeal to our emotions and imagination, as well as to our sense of reason. Wow, that’s really sad. To help us feel and imagine, poets use poetic devices.
imagery symbols figures of speech Poetic Devices To help us feel and imagine as we read a poem, poets use poetic devices,such as these:
Poetic Devices Imagery Read these lines from “Casey at the Bat” by Ernest Lawrence Thayer. To what senses do these images appeal? Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt. Ten thousand eyes were on himas he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applauded when he wiped them on his shirt. Ten thousand eyes were on him as he rubbed his hands with dirt; Five thousand tongues applaudedwhen he wiped them on his shirt. This image appeals to our sense of sight. These images appeal to our senses of sight and touch. This image appeals to our senses of sight and hearing.
Poetic Devices Symbols Asymbolis something that has meaning in itself and also stands for something else. Here are some common symbols you will probably recognize: dove/peace 4-leaf clover/ good luck flag/country
Poetic Devices Figures of Speech Figures of speechare words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and are not meant literally. The guard stood like a flagpole. This figure of speech compares the guard’s stance to a flagpole, suggesting that he stood unmoving, tall, and straight.
Poetic Devices Figures of Speech Ametaphoris a figure of speech that makes a comparison without using a connecting word. The win was the fuel the team needed. This metaphor compares the win with fuel. Like fuel, the win gives the team energy. When poets carry a metaphor over several lines, it is called an extended metaphor.
Poetic Devices • Metaphors are bridges. They create images by connecting any two different ideas, persons, places and things to show them in new ways. • Extended metaphors – • When the two things are compared at some length and in several ways. • It is a longer comparison • Questions to ask yourself as you read: • What is the Metaphor? • How are the characteristics of the second noun used to describe the first noun?
Extended Metaphor Life is Dirt The longer you hang on the smaller it gets. Get it wet, and you've got mud on your hands. Take care of life or it's overrun with weeds. Life can be rocky or smooth and it's great for throwing at people. • What is the extended metaphor in this poem? • List characteristics of the two things being compared. • Was the metaphor used through the entire poem? If so, then we have an extended metaphor.
Crafting the Lesson (We) Life is Dirt The longer you hang on the smaller it gets. Get it wet, and you've got mud on your hands. Take care of life or it's overrun with weeds. Life can be rocky or smooth and it's great for throwing at people. • Metaphor: Life is dirt. • List characteristics of the second noun: mud, weeds, brown, rocky, smooth, throw it, shrinking, earth, bumpy. • YES
Forms of Poetry Most people recognize a poem when they see it. Poems usually come in lines instead of sentences and present ideas in stanzas instead of paragraphs. There are exceptions to every rule, however, and poems come in many varieties.
O Captain! My Captain! Elegies Anelegyis a poem of mourning, usually for someone who has died. For example, Walt Whitman’s “O Captain! My Captain!” is an elegy for the slain president Abraham Lincoln.
Task 1 • Close Read 1: 1) Box the title information, draw a line under each stanza, and number the stanzas. 2) As you read: - On the left check what you understand. - On the right write a question for parts you do not understand. Each stanza should have one questions needing to be answered. 3) Within the text, - Underline key words and details - Circle unfamiliar words and define or replace with synonyms. - Mark parts that are important, interesting, or surprising.
Task 2 Close Read 2 • In your groups, you will work together to paraphrase (restate all of the text in your own words) each stanza on the worksheet chart. Example: • Then, answer the questions on the other side of the chart about the poem.