MANAJEMEN KESELAMATAN & KESEHATAN KERJA (K3). Tjipto Suwandi. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH.
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MANAJEMENKESELAMATAN & KESEHATAN KERJA (K3) Tjipto Suwandi
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH • Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations, the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions, the protection of workers in their employment from risk resulting from factors adverse to health, the placing and maintenance of the workers in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological capabilities, and to summarize the adaptation of work to man and each man to his job (W.H.O)
The main focus in occupational health is on three different objectives: a. The maintenance and promotion of workers health and working capacity b. The improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health, and c. Development of work organization and working cultures in direction, which support health and safety at work, and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of undertakings. The concept of working culture is intended in this context to mean a reflection of the essential value systems adopted by the undertaking concerned. Such a culture is reflected in practice in the management system, personnel policy, and principles for participation, training policies, and quality management of the undertaking.
INTERNATIONAL LOSS CONTROL INSTITUTE CAUSATION MODEL Lack of Control Basic Causes Immediate Cause Incident Loss Inadequate Program Program Standards Compliance To Standards Personal Factors Job Factors Sub- Standards Acts Sub- Standards conditions Contact With Energy, Substance Or People People Property Product Environ- ment Service
PERAN MANAJEMEN • Sasaran manajemen ; efficient prod. Engineering Purchasing Inspection Prod.insp Maintenance Research Facilities Equipment Materials Efficient Production Selection Placement Training Health Employee relation pract. Motivation PEOPLE
TRANSPARANCY AUTONOMY QUALITY ACCREDITATION ACCOUNTABILITY
SISTEM MANAJEMEN K3(OSHMS) INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT FEEDBACK
INPUT • MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND • RESOURCES: • Regulatory compliance and • System conformance • 2. Accountability, Responsibility, Authority EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION
MANAGEMENT DIRECTION Responsibility : the fact of having to answer for activities and result in safety. Authority : the right to correct, command, and determine courses of action. Accountability : The fact of active measurement by manage- ment to ensure compliance with its will. In defining accountability in accident prevention, we speak of management doing something to ensure action
PROCESS I (Formulation) • OSH POLICY • GOALS AND OBJECTIVES • PERFORMANCE MEASURE • SYSTEM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT : Baseline Evaluation & Risk Assessment • OSH MANUAL & PROCEDURES
MANAGER & K3 STRATA : K3 UPPER MANAGER MIDDLE MANAGER LOWER / LINE MANAGER Result Performance
PROCESS II (Implementation) • TRAINING SYSTEM: Technical expertise & personnel qualifications. • HAZARDS CONTROL SYSTEM: - Process design - Emergency Preparedness & Response syst. - Hazardous agent management system • PREVENTIVE & CORRECTIVE ACTION SYSTEM • PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACTING
EVALUATION (FEEDBACK) • COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: Documentation & Record Management syst. • EVALUATION SYSTEM: - Auditing & Self Inspection - Incident Investigation & Root Cause - Analysis - Health Medical Program & Surveillance
IMPROVEMENT (INTEGRATION) • CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT • INTEGRATION • MANAGEMENT REVIEW
MANAGEMENT CONTROL ACTIVITIES I S M E C • IDENTIFICATION OF WORK • STANDARDS • MEASUREMENT • EVALUATION • COMMENDATION AND CORRECTION
IDENTIFICATION OF WORK • Leadership and administ. • Task analysis & procedure • Accident investigation • Organizational rules • Management training • Employee training • Health control • Engineering control • Program evaluation system • Personal communication • Planned inspection • Emergency preparedness • Group meeting • General promotion • Purchasing control • Hiring and placement • Accident analysis • Personal protective equipm. • Off the job safety • Other program activities
STANDARDS Establishing standards for the work performance expected in each work activity area identified • Refining and upgrading existing standards to improve coverage, understanding, reasonableness, and practicality
MEASUREMENT Measuring performance by degree of compliance with established standards. • Refining objectivity and quality of system to quantify results.
EVALUATION Evaluating performance on a timely basis and communicating it to those accountable. • Refining existing communication system to enhance meaning and motivation.
COMMENDING • Commending compliance and correcting deficiencies in performance standards.
INCIDENT • An undesired event which, under slightly different circumstances, could have resulted in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process. • An undesired event which could or does result in a loss. • Accident result from contact with a substance or source of energy above the threshold limit of the body or the structure.
Concept of multiple causes Causes of accident: Personal factors: inadequate physical/ physiological and mental/psychological capability, physical/physiological stress, mental/psychological stress, lack of knowledge, lack of skill, improper motivation.
CAUSES OF ACCIDENT JOB FACTOR: Inadequate leadership or supervision, inadequate engineering, inadequate purchasing, inadequate maintenance, inadequate tool and equipment, inadequate tools and equipment, Inadequate work standards, Wear and Tear, abuse or misuse.
OSH PRINCIPLES • An unsafe act, an unsafe condition, and an accident are all symptoms of something wrong in the management system. • We can predict that certain sets of circumstances will produce severe injuries. These circumstances can be identified and controlled.
OSH PRINCIPLES 3. Safety should be managed like any other company function. Management should direct the safety effort by setting achievable goals and by planning, organizing, and controlling in achieve them. 4. The key in effective line safety performance is management procedures that fix accountability.
OSH PRINCIPLES 5. The function of safety is to locate and define the operational errors that allow accidents to occur. This function can be carried out in two ways: a) by asking why accidents happen ---- searching for their root causes and b) by asking whether certain known effective controls are being utilized.
ZERO ACCIDENT • Adalah hasil (result) K3 sehingga lebih merupakan evaluasi dari manager. (middle -- upper). • Performance di titik beratkan pada middle --lower manager. • Integrasi (keterpaduan) performance (kinerja) harus nampak di tingkat pelaksana.
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