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Statistical presentation in international scientific publications 8. References Malcolm Campbell Lecturer in Statistics, School of Nursing, Midwifery & Social Work, The University of Manchester Statistical Editor, Health & Social Care in the Community
8. ReferencesSome sources for guidance • 8.1 Writing for publication • 8.2 Statistical reporting guidelines • 8.3 Statistical advice Statistical presentation - 8. References
8.1 Writing for publication 1Essential sources for writing for publication • Hall GM (Ed) (1998). How to write a paper (2nd Edition). BMJ Books, London. • advice on the standard structure of a paper, what to include in different sections, how to submit a paper, and the editorial process • Peat J, Elliott E, Baur L, and Keena V (2002). Scientific Writing: Easy when you know how. BMJ Books, London. • same again but with much more on statistical reporting, plus chapters on writing style, grammar, word choice and punctuation – a complete guide Statistical presentation - 8. References
Writing for publication 2How to write for peer review • Wager E, Godlee F and Jefferson T (2002). How to Survive Peer Review. BMJ Books, London. • freely available on the web at http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/advice/peer_review/wager.pdf • very clear guide to the process involved in submitting to a peer reviewed journal (pp 23-33) • and a humorous list of ways to ensure your paper is rejected Statistical presentation - 8. References
Writing for publication 3A standard for authors and editors • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (2007). Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication • http://www.icmje.org/ • comments on authorship, contributorship and editorship • comments on privacy, consent and confidentiality • how to structure a paper & what to report in each section Statistical presentation - 8. References
Writing for publication 4 Useful checklists whether you submit to BMJ or not… • BMJ house style • http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/advice/stylebook/basics.shtml • BMJ stylebook • http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/advice/stylebook/start.shtml • BMJ checklists for editors and peer reviewers • http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/advice/checklists.shtml Statistical presentation - 8. References
8.2 Statistical reporting guidelines Standardised reporting guidelines • Published guidelines for reporting certain types of study designs • randomised controlled trials (including cluster-randomised, non-inferiority/equivalence and herbal interventions), diagnostic accuracy, non-randomised trials, observational studies (cohort/case control/survey) • See the EQUATOR Network for a common link • Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research Network • http://www.equator-network.org/ Statistical presentation - 8. References
The CONSORT statement (2001)Checklist/flow diagram for reporting randomised trials • CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials • Moher D, Schulz KF and Altman DG for the CONSORT Group (2001). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. eg Lancet357, 1191-1194. • Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D, Gotzsche P, Lang T for the CONSORT Group (2001). The Revised CONSORT Statement for Reporting Randomized Trials: Explanation and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med134(8), 663-94. • http://www.consort-statement.org/ • download both documents and templates of checklist and flow diagram Statistical presentation - 8. References
The STARD statement (2003) Guidelines for studies of diagnostic accuracy • STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy • Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE Gatsonis PP, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, De Vet HC (2003a). Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. eg Clinical Chemistry49(1), 1-6. • Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE Gatsonis PP, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, Moher D, Rennie D, De Vet HC, Lijmer JG (2003b). The STARD statement for reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy: explanation and elaboration. eg Clinical Chemistry49(1), 7-18. • http://www.stard-statement.org/ • download both documents and templates of checklist and flow diagram Statistical presentation - 8. References
The TREND statement (2004)Checklist/flow diagram for reporting non-randomised trials • Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs • Des Jarlais DC, Lyles C and Crepaz N and the TREND Group (2004). Improving the Reporting Quality of Nonrandomized Evaluations of Behavioral and Public Health Interventions: The TREND statement. American Journal of Public Health94(3), 361-366. • http://www.trend-statement.org/ • download document Statistical presentation - 8. References
The STROBE statement (2007)Checklist/flow diagram for reporting observational studies • STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology • von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gotzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP (2007). Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. eg Preventative Medicine45, 247-251. • Vandenbroucke JP, von Elm E, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Mulrow CD, Pocock SJ, Poole C, Schlesselman JJ, Egger M (2007). Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE): Explanation and Elaboration. eg Epidemiology18(6), 805-835. • http://www.strobe-statement.org/ • download both documents and templates of checklist and flow diagram Statistical presentation - 8. References
Other guidelinesFor other kinds of studies • Extensions to CONSORT: • Campbell MK, Elbourne DR, Altman DG (2004). CONSORT statement: extension to cluster randomised trials. BMJ328(7441), 702-708. • Piaggio G, Elbourne DR, Altman DG, Pocock SJ, Evans SJW (2006). Reporting of noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials: An extension of the CONSORT statement. JAMA295,1152-1160. • Gagnier JJ, Boon H, Rochon P, Moher D, Barnes J, Bombardier C (2006). Reporting randomized, controlled trials of herbal interventions: an elaborated CONSORT statement. Ann Intern Med144(5), 364-367. • http://www.consort-statement.org/?o=1044 Statistical presentation - 8. References
Good practice in conduct and reportingParticularly for survey research • Kelley K, Clark B, Brown V and Sitzia J (2003). Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research. International Journal for Quality in Health Care15(3), 261-266. • a readable summary of how to perform and report survey research • extends to other designs too, of course! Statistical presentation - 8. References
8.3 Statistical advice 1Good source for general statistical advice • Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ and Pocock SJ (2000). Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. In Altman DG, Machin D, Bryant TN and Gardner MJ (Eds). Statistics with confidence (2nd Edition). BMJ Books, London. • general advice on statistical methods, and presenting and interpreting results • a little technical • some journals reference this book Statistical presentation - 8. References
Statistical advice 2Classical source for statistical reporting • Bailar III JC and Mosteller F (1988). Guidelines for statistical reporting in articles for medical journals: amplifications and explanations. Ann Intern Med108, 266-273. • advice on describing statistical methods from eligibility of participants to the use of tables and figures • a little more technical • many journals reference this paper • http://www.people.vcu.edu/~albest/Guidance/guidelines_for_statistical_reporting.htm Statistical presentation - 8. References
Statistical advice 3More advice and examples of reporting • Peat J and Barton B (2005). Medical Statistics: A Guide to Data Analysis and Critical Appraisal. BMJ Books, London. • a table (pp 20-21) summarising how to report numbers, percentages, confidence intervals and p-values • many comments on critical appraisal of statistical papers • Tabachnick BG and Fidell LS (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (Fourth Edition). Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, MA. • extensive coverage of multivariate methods (except cluster analysis) • practical advice on sample size and methods • examples of reporting results Statistical presentation - 8. References
Statistical advice 4Detailed source for statistical reporting • Lang TA and Secic L (1997). How to Report Statistics in Medicine. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia. • annotated guidelines for methods from descriptive statistics, through confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, to more common multivariate analyses, meta-analyses and economic evaluations • some journals reference this book too Statistical presentation - 8. References
Statistical advice 5My favourite detailed source for statistical reporting • Peacock J and Kerry S (2007). Presenting Medical Statistics from Proposal to Publication: a step-by-step guide. Oxford University Press, Oxford. • how to present “statistical information” in research proposals, reports and papers • study design, sample size calculation, data processing, data analysis and results • from descriptive statistics, through single group, two-group & paired designs, to multiple & logistic regression and survival analysis • wonderful… Statistical presentation - 8. References