Mk. LANDUSE PLANNING Soemarno - ppsub 2 maret 2013. GREEN MANMADE AREAS. ZONA TERBANGUN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN. Peredam Cahaya Silau Keefektifan pohon meredam dan melunakkan cahaya matahari tergantung pada ukuran dan kerapatannya .
Soemarno- ppsub 2 maret 2013
GREEN MANMADE AREAS
ZONA TERBANGUN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN
Sustainable or “green building” design and construction is the opportunity to use our resources more efficiently while creating healthier and more energy-efficient homes.
Although there is no magic formula, success comes in the form a leaving a lighter footprint on the environment through conservation of resources, while at the same time balancing energy-efficient, cost-effective, low-maintenance products for our construction needs.
The green design involves finding the delicate balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment.
As the green philosophy continues to grow, specifiers will increasingly face pressures to use or not to use certain products. In a handful of states, proposed regulatory language and tax incentives have already been introduced to incorporate, or not to incorporate, certain products based on “green” attributes. However, specifiers are cautioned to focus less on products, and more on a sum of the products as a whole.
The benefits of plastic, with its lightweight and airtight properties, provide specifiers an alternative to some of the hard-to-find raw materials. With a greater understanding of the variety of plastic compounds and products, specifiers will have new options for sustainable design efforts.
Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials, and reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal — the complete building life cycle.
Green building is also sometimes known as sustainable building or environmental building, although the terms are sometimes defined or used differently. A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally.
Other commonly used terms include sustainable design and green architecture; however, while good design is essential to green building, the actual operation, maintenance, and ultimate disposal or deconstruction of the building also have very significant effects on buildings' overall environmental impact.
Diminishing natural resources, pollution, and the ever increasing price of gasoline are just a few motivating reasons to recycle and protect our fragile environment.
One way responsible corporations have taken the green initiative is through environmentally sustainable building practices and materials.
reduced operating costs by increasing productivity and using less energy and water,
improved public and occupant health due to improved indoor air quality, and
reduced environment impacts by, lessening storm water runoff and the heat island effect.
Green building is an essential component of the related concepts of sustainable design, sustainable development and general sustainability.
Practitioners of green building often seek to achieve not only ecological but aesthetic harmony between a structure and its surrounding natural and built environment.
The appearance and style of sustainable homes and buildings can be nearly indistinguishable from their less sustainable counterparts.
Sustainable design strives to balance development, social equality, ecology, and economics.
Green building is increasingly being governed and driven by standards, such as
the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system developed by the U.S. Green Building Council.
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Buildings have a profound effect on the environment, which is why green building practices are so important to reduce and perhaps one day eliminate those impacts.
In the United States alone, buildings account for:
39 % of total energy use
12 % of total water consumption
68 % of total electricity consumption
38 % of total carbon dioxide emissions
Green Building Design Elements
Decking, Fencing & Railing
Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment.
On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site.
There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources, reduce loads, optimize systems, and generate on-site renewable energy.
Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo and straw, lumber from forests certified to be sustainably managed, stone, recycled metal, and other products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable.
Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation.
Low-impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example, insulation may be made from low VOC (volatile organic compound)-emitting materials such as recycled denim, rather than the insulation materials that may contain carcinogenic or toxic materials such as formaldehyde.
To discourage insect damage, these alternate insulation materials may be treated with boric acid. Organic or milk-based paints may be used.
Sustainable or “green building” design and construction is the opportunity to use our resources more efficiently, while creating healthier and more energy-efficient homes.
The success comes in the form of leaving a lighter footprint on the environment through conservation of resources, while at the same time balancing energy-efficient, cost-effective, low-maintenance products for our construction needs.
Green building design involves finding the delicate balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment.
Learn more about reducing global warming.
FOTO: smno.kampus.ub. janu2013
Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate as well.
When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring.
Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus reducing the consumption of new goods.
When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished, such as bamboo, which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth, or cork oak, in which only the outer bark is removed for use, thus preserving the tree.
When possible, building materials may be gleaned from the site itself; for example, if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area, wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re-used as part of the building itself.
To minimize the energy loads within and on the structure, it is critical to orient the building to take advantage of cooling breezes and sunlight. Daylighting with ample windows will eliminate the need to turn on electric lights during the day (and provide great views outside too).
Passive Solar can warm a building in the winter - but care needs to be taken to provide shade in the summer time to prevent overheating. Prevailing breezes and convection currents can passively cool the building in the summer.
plays a crucial role in using the sun’s energy to help heat the home in the winter while shading it from the sun during the summer months. This is accomplished with two basic strategies: lot design and extended roof overhangs. Lot design is utilized through proper orientation of southern facing windows to the sun. In addition, existing or planned vegitation can be utilized in order to allow in or block sun and wind. Overhangs are extended in order to maximize the sun's energy in the winter and minimizing in the summer.
Geothermal Heating and Cooling: the earth beneath us offers us a relatively stable temperature that we can use as a heat sink or a heat source as needed. Geothermal heat pumps capitalize on this fact and greatly reduce the need for fossil fuels to heat and cool our houses. This greatly reduces the home’s energy use, resulting in dramatically reduced utility bills and lower production of green house gases. As an alternative, increasing the effectiveness of the insulation and air barriers can reduce energy needs for heating and cooling to a point where a modulating high-efficiency natural gas furnace could be used at a significant savings.
by using insulated concrete forms to build the exterior walls of the home, we can use their inherent high R-value and very low air infiltration property to greatly reduce the overall energy load needed to heat and cool our homes.
due to the superior air barrier qualities of the ICF and cellulose insulation, our homes need to be vented and allowed to breathe.
Standard mechanical systems vent conditioned air (i.e. heated indoor air in the winter, cooled indoor air in the summer) to the outside and bring in unconditioned air which must then be heated or cooled.
Heat recovery ventilators allow us to bring in fresh outside air and pre-condition it with the air that we are ventilating.
Structural Insulated wall panels for minimum heat loss and efficiency
Reflection Insulation via pure aluminum radiant barrier
Energy efficient lighting with high output fluorescent lighting
Natural barn environment ventilation featuring natural chimney vent and cathedral ceiling via a scissor truss design
Stall and wall planking featuring a recycled plastic plank
Horse mattress consisting of recycled rubber
Thermal mass stores heat gained during the day and releases it at night minimizing the swings in temperature.
Thermal mass can both heat the building in winter and cool it during the summer.
Insulation is the final step to optimizing the structure.
Well-insulated windows, doors, and walls help reduce energy loss, thereby reducing energy usage.
These design features don't cost much money to construct and significantly reduce the energy needed to make the building comfortable.
Optimizing the heating and cooling systems through installing energy efficient machinery, commissioning, and heat recovery is the next step.
Compared to optimizing the passive heating and cooling features through design, the gains made by engineering are relatively expensive and can add significantly to the projects cost.
However, thoughtful integrated design can reduce costs -- for example, once a building has been designed to be more energy-efficient, it may be possible to downsize heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, leading to substantial savings.
To further address energy loss hot water heat recycling is used to reduce energy usage for domestic water heating.
Ground source heat pumps are more energy efficient then other forms of heating and cooling until you factor in the energy lost during generation and transmission if the project is on the grid.
Finally, onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building.
Power generation is the most expensive feature to add to a building.
Good green architecture also reduces waste, of energy, water and materials.
During the construction phase, one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills.
Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing onsite solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
Green building often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for reduction of rainwater run-off.
Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel for parking lots instead of concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water, are used as well.
Standards and ratings
Many countries have developed their own standards of energy efficiency for buildings.
Code for Sustainable Homes, United Kingdom
EnerGuide for Houses, Canada (energy retrofits & up-grades)
EnerGuide for New Houses, Canada (new construction)
Green Building Council of Australia's Green Star
Haute QualitéEnvironnementale, France
House Energy Rating, Australia
Green Globes, USA, Canada and United Kingdom
National Association of Home Builders Green Building Guidelines, USA
Passivhaus, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom
There is a system in place in Australia called First Rate designed to increase energy efficiency of residential buildings. The Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) has developed a green building standard known as Green Star..
In Adelaide, South Australia, there are at least two different projects that incorporate the principles of Green building. The Eco-City development is located in Adelaide's city centre and the Aldinga Arts Eco Village is located in Aldinga. Guidelines for building developments in each project are outlined in the bylaws. The bylaws include grey water reuse, reuse of stormwater, capture of rainwater, use of solar panels for electricity and hotwater, solar passive building design and community gardens and landscaping.
Canada has implemented "r2000" guidelines for new buildings built after the year 2000. Incentives are offered to builders to meet the r2000 standard in an effort to increase energy efficiency and promote sustainability. In December 2002, Canada formed the Canada Green Building Council and in July 2003 obtained an exclusive licence from the US Green Building Council to adapt the LEED rating system to Canadian circumstances.
Beamish-Munro Hall at Queen's University features sustainable construction methods such as high fly-ash concrete, triple-glazed windows, dimmable fluorescent lights and a grid-tied photovoltaic array.
German developments that employ green building techniques include:
The Solarsiedlung (Solar Village) in Freiburg, Germany, which features energy-plus houses.
The Vauban development, also in Freiburg.
Houses designed by Baufritz, incorporating passive solar design, heavily insulated walls, triple-glaze doors and windows, non-toxic paints and finishes, summer shading, heat recovery ventilation, and greywater treatment systems.
The new Reichstag building in Berlin, which produces its own energy.
The Confederation of Indian Industry plays an active role in promoting sustainability in the Indian construction sector.
There are many energy efficient buildings in India, situated in a variety of climatic zones.
The Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) promotes green building techniques.
Malaysian architect Ken Yeang is a prominent voice in the area of ecological design.
The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has developed The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System™, which is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high performance green buildings.
LEED gives building owners and operators the tools they need to have an immediate and measurable impact on their buildings’ performance.
LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality.
They have developed specific versions of the LEED rating system to assist specific building types in achieving certification. Some of the commercially available systems are:
LEED-NC: New Construction and Major Renovations (the most commonly applied-for LEED certification)
LEED-CI: Commercial Interiors
LEED-EB: Existing Buildings
Other versions that will soon be released for public consumption are:
LEED-ND: Neighborhood Developments
LEED for Schools
LEED for Healthcare
LEED for Labs
LEED for Retail
A Framework for Energy Improvements In the context of climate change, energy is the most significant area of assessment within Green Globes-CIEB. A combined focus on energy use, building features and management helps to pinpoint where performance is lacking and what corrective action is required. The system uses the EPA’s Portfolio Manager to determine a consumption target in k/Btus for each building type, and, where appropriate, buildings must meet a minimum performance target of 75 percent based on the comparable EPA Target Finder building.
The goal is to demonstrate that it provides the combination of a credible baseline and guidance that allows users to plan with accuracy the interventions required to achieve measured reductions in energy consumption for existing buildings.In the first six weeks after the launch of the pilot, the GBI registered 111 users, and 34 buildings began the assessment process.
This supports our belief not only in the urgent need for practical and cost-effective tools such as Green Globes-CIEB, but in the ability of such tools to transform the market from one in which green building leads to valuable but imprecise benefits, to one in which it defines the path for achieving specific and measured environmental goals.
The Green Building Initiative is a non-profit network of building industry leaders committed to bringing green to mainstream residential and commercial construction.
The GBI believes in building approaches that are environmentally progressive, but also practical and affordable for builders to implement.
The GBI has developed an easy to use, inexpensive and web-based rating tool called Green Globes, which is being upgraded in accordance with ANSI procedures.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's EnergyStar program rates commercial buildings for energy efficiency and provides EnergyStar qualifications for new homes that meet their standards for energy efficient building design.
ShoreBank, an American community development bank, has pioneered lending to developers for Green Building projects and energy audits of existing structures.
In 2005, Washington became the first state in the U.S. to enact green building legislation.
According to the law, all major public agency facilities with a floor area exceeding 5,000 square feet (465 m²), including state funded school buildings, are required to meet or exceed LEED standards in construction or renovation.
The projected benefits from this law are:
20% annual savings in energy costs
20% reduction in water costs
38% reduction in waste water production
22% reduction in construction waste
In 2006, Charlottesville, VA became one of the first small towns in the US to enact green building legislation.
This presents a significant shift in construction and architecture as LEED regulations have formerly been focused on commercial construction.
If US homeowner interest grows in "green" residential construction, the companies involved in the production and manufacturing of LEED building materials will become likely candidates for tomorrow's round of private equity and IPO investing.
BedZED - Zero-carbon building in the UK
Cobb Hill Cohousing
Metal Roofing Alliance
Natural Capital Center
Green redevelopment of a building on the National Register
Paragon Space Development
Green building engineering
Buildings are major energy consumers, accounting for 40 percent of all energy use in the United States. Starting in the 1970s, concerns about spiking oil prices led the federal government to research methods to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, spur the development of renewable energy sources and foster environmentally friendly business practices. The focus on green building wavered in the years that followed, as oil prices slid. But in recent times, concerns about climate change and rising energy costs have lent fresh momentum to sustainable building practices among a growing number of designers, contractors, real estate developers, environmental groups and public policymakers. Buildings are responsible for 38 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S., more than the transportation or industrial sectors, according to the U.S. Green Building Council.
Italian architects AKA architetti have won a competition for a low-energy wooden house.
Ramah lingkungan = hematFaktaakibatpemanasan global mendoronglahirnyaberbagaiinovasiprodukindustriterusberkembangdalamduniaarsitekturdanbahanbangunan. Konseppembangunanarsitekturhijaumenekankanpeningkatanefisiensidalampenggunaan air, energi, dan material bangunan, mulaidaridesain, pembangunan, hinggapemeliharaanbangunanitukedepan.Desainrancangbangunanmemerhatikanbanyakbukaanuntukmemaksimalkansirkulasiudaradancahayaalami. Sedikitmungkinmenggunakanpeneranganlampudanpengondisiudarapadasianghari.Desainbangunanhematenergi, membatasilahanterbangun, layout sederhana, ruangmengalir, kualitasbangunanbermutu, efisiensibahan, dan material ramahlingkungan. Atap-atapbangunandikembangkanmenjaditamanatap (roof garden, green roof) yang memilikinilaiekologistinggi (suhuudaraturun, pencemaranberkurang, ruanghijaubertambah).