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TEXTILE ARTS. Objects constructed using fibres that are aesthetic or functional . Textile art is the creation of textiles or creation with textiles. A fibre is a unit of matter that is at least 100 times longer than it is thick. Traditions Religion Climate and Geographic location Landform

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textile arts


Objects constructed using fibres that are aesthetic or functional .

Textile art is the creation of textiles or creation with textiles.

A fibre is a unit of matter that is at least 100 times longer than it is thick

factors that influence the textile arts of a country


  • Religion
  • Climate and Geographic location
  • Landform
  • Availability of resources and environment
  • Technology improvements
  • Social status
  • Living standards and economy
  • Tourism
  • Government policies
  • Social change eg war, emancipation of women
  • Peer pressure
  • Consumer needs and wants

Factors that influence the textile arts of a country

  • 17,508 islands
  • On the equator, average temperature 27
  • two seasons– wet (October and April is low season), and dry, there are no extremes of winter and summer.
indonesian dress

Kemben- is a long narrow strip of batik cloth, tightly wound around the chest and left the shoulder bare.

Indonesian Dress


Stagen or belt

Sarong- sewn together

Kain panjang- if left unsewn & longer

Songket silk

men s clothing
Men’s Clothing
  • Jarit or BebedMen kain panjang, tightened with stagen.
  • SurjanMen traditional long sleeved shirt and the material is not batik.
  • BeskapInstead of wearing surjan, the men wear a coat, the materials is not batik.
  • BlangkonIt is a headgear made from batik.
  • KerisThe dagger is worn at backside of the waist, as a compliment to the dress.
selendeng shawl
Selendeng- shawl
  • Similar in size and shape to the kemben. 
  • Highly functional piece of cloth which can be draped around the head in various ways.  
  • Most women in Java wear selendang so that they can carry personal objects
sarong with kebaya long sleeve jacket
Sarong with kebaya – long sleeve jacket

Selendang around neck

Ikat kepala or Head-cloth is usually worn by men at formal occasions.  The ikat head cloth can be tied in a various ways to form a turban.  At one time  you could tell the rank of a man in Indonesia by the way he wore his turban.

indonesian clothing
Indonesian Clothing

Stagen (belt)




fibres used
Fibres Used



Pineapple Fibre

Palm Leaf

Coir from coconut husks


  • Tapa fibre and beater

Songket Silk-gold and silver threads are woven into the cloth to create complex motifs of birds, butterflies and flowers.

batik tulis write
Batik Tulis (write)
  • Resist Dyeing Technique
  • Tjanting (canting) used with wax
  • Is produced by women
  • Cotton or silk fibres used
  • Batik wax is a mix of beeswax and paraffin, Beeswax is soft, pliable, and blocks completely, no cracking. Paraffin is more brittle, and lets dye penetrate wherever cracks form.
  • Creating batik is a very time consuming craft so in 19th century the cap. (copper stamp - pronounced chop) was developed. This invention enabled a higher volume of batik production
  • Men usually used the cap
  • Each cap is a copper block that makes up a design unit.
batik designs
Batik designs

There is two main kind of batik designs: geometric and free form.

  • Kawung is a very old design consisting of intersecting circles, known in Java

Ceplok is a general name for a whole series of geometric designs based on squares, rhombs, circles, stars, etc. Although fundamentally geometric, ceplok can also represent abstractions and stylisation of flowers, buds, seeds and even animals.

Parang was once used exclusively by the royal courts of Central Java.

The Hindus introduced the sacred bird - Garuda, the sacred flower - lotus, the dragon - Naga and the tree of life. Islam, since it forbids the depiction of humans or animals, brought stylized and modified ornaments as symbols, i.e., flowers and geometric designs.

ikat weaving
Ikat Weaving

Backstrap loom

ikat cotton threads

Weft Ikat weaving- weft threads are dyed to create the design and then woven with plain warp threads. These cloths are recognisable by their abstract designs and bright colours.

Ikat cotton threads

Geringsing, or double-ikat weaving is the most sought after. This is when both the warp and weft threads are dyed to their final designs before being woven together

  • Traditional colours for Central Javanese batik were made from natural ingredients and consisted primarily of beige, blue, brown and black.
  • The oldest colour used in traditional batik was blue. The colour was from the leaves of the Indigo plant.
  • In traditional batik, the second colour applied was a brown colour called soga. The colour could range from light yellow to a dark brown. The dye came from the bark of the Soga tree.
  • Another colour that was traditionally used was a dark red colour called mengkuda. This dye was created from the leaves of the Morinda Citrifolia.

Men usually did the dyeing process, and dances or ceremonies were performed to ensure a successful result.

wedding dress


Purification Ceremony

Wedding dress
  • Certain batik designs are reserved for brides and bridegrooms
  • Some designs are reserved for the Sultan and his family or their attendants.
  • A person's rank could be determined by the pattern of the batik worn.

Cultural ceremony

Blessing Ceremony



  • Modern batik uses lines of leaves, flowers and birds.
  • No longer dependent on traditional (natural) dyes, as chemical dyes can produce any colour that they wish to achieve.
  • Modern batik still uses canting and cap to create intricate designs
  • Modern styles of clothing and furnishings use batik.
  • Use man made fibres
  • Use automated machinery to weave fabrics
wayang puppet
Wayang Puppet
  • Made from leather
  • From Java