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APV25 Production Testing & Quality Assurance. APV25 – 0.25 m m CMOS readout chip for CMS Si Tracker. Production wafer probe testing (Imperial College) results from wafers tested so far Production quality assurance (IC and Padova)

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APV25 Production Testing &Quality Assurance

APV25 – 0.25 mm CMOS readout chip for CMS Si Tracker

Production wafer probe testing(Imperial College)

results from wafers tested so far

Production quality assurance (IC and Padova)

QAplan and results for chips sampled from production wafers

M.Raymond, R.Bainbridge, G.Hall, E.Noah, J.Leaver, Imperial College London, UK.

M.French, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK.

A.Candelori, A.Kaminsky, Universita di Padova, Italy.

8th Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, Colmar, France, September, 2002

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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APV25 features

128 channel chip for analogue readout of AC coupled Si sensors in CMS mstrip tracker

Main features

50 nsec. CR-RC amplifier

192 cell pipeline (up to 4msec latency + buffering)

peak/deconvolution operating mode

peak mode -> normal CR-RC pulse shape

deconvolution -> single bunch crossing resolution

20 MHz analogue MUX -> differential current O/P

I2C slow control interface


8.1 mm

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Chip testability

testability enhanced by programmable nature of chip

read/write access to registers for operational modes

and analogue bias settings

2 features valuable during wafer test:

on-chip calibration pulse generation

charge injection to all 128 channels (groups of 16)

programmable amplitude and delay

checks all channels alive

verify analogue pulse shape (and tune if required)

digital header in O/P frame ->pipeline address + error bit

strong check on synchronization and correct

operation of pipeline control logic

peak mode

pulse shape


3.125 nsec. increments

APV output frame

digital header

128 analogue samples

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer testing


identify faulty chips at wafer level -> highest possible yield of multi-chip hybrids

need high level of fault coverage

generate wafer map for cutting company

store all test information in database

wafer id, chip#

The task

8 inch wafers, 360 viable sites/wafer

~ 100,000 chips required

=> ~400 wafers (yield dependent)

~ 1 - 2 wafer/day throughput required

to keep pace with module production

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test hardware

Micromanipulator 8 inch

semi–automatic probe station

VME based

ADC (8 bits)

fast control signal sequencer

40 MHz clock and T1

I2C interface

PC (LabView) controls both

DAQ and probe-station

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test hardware (2)

custom probe card

on-board buffering,


as close as possible

APV wafer on chuck

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test software

LabView based, aim for comprehensive fault coverage

digital: chip addressing, stuck bits, pipeline control logic, …..

analogue: supply currents, all channels pulse shapes, all pipeline locations OK, noise, ……

green lights =>

all tests passed

calibration pulse


power supply








(128 x 192)

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test software (2)

individual chip test subvi called

by supervisory vi

controls probe station


generates pass/fail wafer map

writes test data to file after

each individual chip tested

time to test 1 chip ~70s

=> ~ 7 hrs/wafer

=> 2 wafers/day

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results

Wafers tested so far

delivered tested

engineering run lot 0 (Sept. 2000) 10 10

production lots (since Jan. 2002)

lot 1 24 13*

lot 2 21 12*

lot 3 25 25

lot 4 25 13+

lot 5 20 16+


results available from 88 wafers -> 13,225 chips passing all tests -> substantial sample

notes: * lots 1 and 2 were replaced by lots 4 and 5 after a processing problem identified (low yield)

nevertheless results interesting for comparison

+ not finished probing in time for results to be included here

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results – Supply Currents

Supply currents for all pass chips

lot by lot, VDD(+1.25) and VSS(-1.25)

wider spreads for engineering lot 0 due

to ongoing hardware/software

development during test phase

production testing performed with fixed

I2C bias parameters for all wafers/lots

relatively small spread within lots

systematic (but still small) differences

from lot to lot

lot 0

lot 1

lot 2

lot 3

lot 4

lot 5


LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results - Gains

  • peak calibration pulse height for all

  • pass chips in lot

  • calibration pulse amplitude not well

  • controlled (poor tolerance of v.small

  • metal/metal parasitic capacitance

  • used to inject charge)

  • results not representative of true

    gain matching

    nevertheless still good

lot 0

lot 1

lot 2

lot 3

lot 4

lot 5

ADC units

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results - Noise

average bare channel noise/chip in

deconvolution mode

low noise difficult to measure in probe

test environment (electrical interference,

difficult decoupling)

rough calibration using digital header

amplitude (~8 mips)

-> ~ 500 – 600 electrons

( c.f. ~430 expected)

lot 0

lot 1

lot 2

lot 3

lot 4

lot 5

rms ADC units

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results – Pulse shapes

Peak Mode


ave. pulse shapes for all pass chips (production runs only)

normalised to max. pulse height

shows good pulse shape matching for all chips

not much wafer/lot dependence

simplifies subsequent hybrid/module test

=> 1 set of bias parameters suits all

further fine tuning

required to achieve

best possible


Lot 1

Lot 1

Lot 2

Lot 4

Lot 2

Lot 4

Lot 3

Lot 5

Lot 3

Lot 5

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer test results – Summary

supply currents gain noise


ADC units

rms ADC units

above histograms contain results from all pass chips from all production lots (13225 chips)

overall distribution widths show good wafer : wafer and lot : lot matching

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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engineering lot 0 – average yield 82%

production lot 1 -> low yield (17-36%)

some good chips around periphery

circular area of good chips in middle

~ 50:50 digital:analogue failure modes

production lot 2 -> even lower yield (1-21%)

similar circular pattern

manufacturer contacted, investigation launched, early acknowledgement

of likely process problem, wafers returned and investigated, problem identified

with silicide layer (gate/source/drain contact), all wafers returned, replacement

lots launched with extra checks during production (no problems observed)

production lot 3 -> high yield (ave. 79%), some wafers v. high, others with

patch of failures in centre

problem understood? thought so but…

replacement production lots 4 and 5 -> average yields 33% and 47%

once again circular symmetry to failure patterns, indicates

process related problem (silicide probably not the whole story)

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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eng. lot

Cause of low yield?

problem not just APV, other HEP designs have seen similar results

common features?

long metal tracks? -> antenna effect (ESD sensitivity)

metal layer filling? v. large “handcrafted” layouts unusual

in industry (usually auto-filled to higher density)

design rules not-violated in either case

General conclusions

manufacturer constructive and helpful throughout

exact cause of problem still unclear – much conflicting evidence

Work in progress

CERN test structure to investigate above theories – submission soon

further discussions with manufacturer

re-probe some problem wafers with modified test software

- try and associate failure with physical location in chip

(look for correlation with long metal tracking)



lot 1


lot 2

lot 3



lot 4


lot 5

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA plans (Padova & IC)


perform more detailed tests (including irradiation) on sample of chips which have

already passed wafer probe test


wafer test limited by:

time - throughput ~ 1 min./chip

electrically noisy environment

accuracy – no external charge injection (internal calibration signals not v. precise)

added external input capacitance not possible

irradiation/anneal on wafer not feasible

QA sample size

1 chip/wafer subjected to more detailed electrical tests => 100% wafer coverage

QA radiation testing

subset of these chips irradiated to 10 Mrads, re-measured, annealed, re-measured

sample size ~ 20% (5 wafers/lot) (initially higher, reducing as confidence established)

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA test hardware and procedure

  • sampled chip mounted on small daughter card

  • automated test includes:

  • peak mode pulse shape tuning for best fit to

  • ideal 50ns CR-RC

  • subsequent measurements include:

    • power consumption

    • pulse shape, gain and linearity for calibrated

    • external input signal

    • noise: bare channels + added C

    • internal calibration response

  • tests repeated after irradiation and again after annealing

25 mm

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA irradiation setup

Identical facilities at Padova & IC

X-ray spectrum peak ~ 10 keV

(Vtube=50 kV, Itube=10mA,150mm Al filtration)

dose-rate calibration performed using

Si diodes, overall accuracy ~ 10%

relative accuracy (Padova:IC) ~ 1%

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA irradiation and annealing

Irradiation conditions

X-ray field uniform to within 10% across chip

APV biased, clocked and randomly triggered

Irradiation to 10 Mrad(SiO2) takes ~15 hrs


1 week at 100 deg. C, APV biased, clocked

and randomly triggered throughout

Current status

1 chip from each of 10 engineering wafers

1 chip from each of 13 diced wafers from

3rd production lot

chip taken close to or from centre of any

patch of failures

all 23 chips irradiated, 7 now annealed

Active area of dosimetry diode, Position for

calculation of APV25 dose rate.

Active area of dosimetry diode, Position at maximum dose rate.

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Chip QA measurement: Pre-rad

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Chip QA measurement: 10 Mrads(SiO2)

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Chip QA measurement: 10 Mrads + Anneal

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA measurements - Gain

Gain with external (known) charge injection

- results for peak mode here

No significant effects observed

7 chips only annealed so far

4 from engineering lot

3 from lot 3 production run

ADC units

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA measurements - Noise

un-bonded channels

added capacitance

measurements here in

deconvolution mode

average baseline noise

(unbonded channels)

noise for channel with

added capacitance

no sig. difference before/

after radiation, or anneal

=> neither intercept nor

slope affected

rms ADC units

rms ADC units

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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QA measurements - Linearity


Pulse shapes

Pulse shape acquired

for signals in range

-2 -> +7 mips

(0.5 mip steps)

No significant change

in linearity after irradiation

or anneal



Pulse height

ADC units




signal [mips]

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar

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Wafer probing

production wafer probe test setup working well

throughput 2 wafers/day

~ 100 wafers tested so far (data from analysis of 13,000 chips presented here)

analysis of test data shows good matching between chips, wafers and lots

yield problems observed on some lots

cause still unclear (some theories)

work in progress

QA measurements

automated measurement setup and protocol developed

measurements pre-rad, after 10 Mrads, after anneal

results from chips from all 10 engineering run wafers, and 13 of 25 production lot 3 wafers

no significant effects observed

LHC Electronics Workshop, Colmar