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Lecture # 02 Topic: Muslim Nationalism and Two Nation Theory. Recap of Lecture #1 Importance of Social Sciences Objectives of the course Tentative List of Lectures What is an Ideology? c ont. r ecap cont. How Ideologies Emerges? Basis of Pakistan’s Ideology
Lecture # 02Topic: Muslim Nationalism and Two Nation Theory Recap of Lecture #1 Importance of Social Sciences Objectives of the course Tentative List of Lectures What is an Ideology? cont.
recap cont. • How Ideologies Emerges? • Basis of Pakistan’s Ideology • Aims and objectives of the creation of Pakistan Today’s Topic: Muslim Nationalism and Two Nation Theory
What is Nationalism? • Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation. • A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity or history. (Cont.)
cont. • There are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism, one is the primordialist perspective that describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organize into distinct grouping based on an affinity of birth; • the other is the modernist perspective that describes nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society.
Evolution of Two-Nation theory and Nationalism • Quaid i Azam once said, “Pakistan was established the day when the first Indian national embraced Islam” • Al-Beruni came to India in 1001 A.D with Mahmud of Ghaznavi and written his famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind”. He wrote that: “ The two societies the Hindu and Muslim, like two streams, have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course.”
Differences between Hindus and Muslims • Religious difference • Hindu Nationalism • Cultural and Social differences • Economic differences • Educational differences • Political differences
cont. • According to Panikar, “two parallel societies were established on the same soil. At all steps they were different and hardly any social communication and inter mangling of life existed between them.”
Hindu Nationalism • Dr. Ashoke, the son of the well known Indian historian writes in “Advent of Independence” that it were the Hindus who took lead in Hindu-Muslim separatism by launching the nationalist moments; Brahmo-samaj, Ariya-samaj, Shudi movement. • The founders of Ariya-samaj and Brahmo-smaj were Hindu nationalist leaders and they totally ignored the great contribution made by Muslims in the Indian society and they promoted only the concept of Hindu nationalism
Cultural and Social Differences • The two communities inherited cultural background with glaring contrast of outlook, history, religion and civilization, their beliefs, thinking and approach towards various aspects of life were different form each other. • Hindus and Muslims followed different social customs and traditions, the Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims buried them
cont. • Difference of language and communication styles; Hindus worshiped mother cow while Muslims slaughtered it for eating and sacrificial purposes • The Hindus and Muslims did not intermarry • The Muslims were taken as Maleecha (impure) and anything touched by a Muslim was polluted and extensively washed with the sacred water of Ganga.
cont. “Hindu Muslim families which lived in the same neighborhood for generations could be distinguished at a glance from each other. The cloths, the food, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and everything about them will be different and will immediately point to their distinctive origin.” (ref.CH Muhammad Ali, Emergence of Pakistan ,Pg1)
cont. • Muslims were not even allowed to enter in their kitchens and if it happens by any Muslim than the same was taken as polluted and to be washed and to shed away the impurity caused by a Muslim.
Economic and Educational Differences • With the fall of Mughal empire in 1857 Muslims completely lost hold from political power in south-Asia. • The British blamed Muslims for the war and put them under great stress • British had snatched power from the Muslims, the were very keen to ensure that the Muslims should not be in a position to regain their lost political power. Therefore British adopted harsh policy against Muslims.
cont. • The outcome of the war of 1857 closed all doors of economic prosperity among the Muslims. • But British rulers extraordinarily favored Hindus and allowed them a free access to prosper and to progress economically. • Therefore the Hindus with the blessings of the British government tried their best to crush the Muslims in their economic field.
cont. • The Hindus quickly monopolized the economic resources due to the opportunities provided by the British rulers. • That was the real economic decline of Muslims. • The Hindus had also advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education.
cont. • Muslims were reluctant to receive modern education, which heavily effected their economic condition. • At that time Muslims were dependent on Hindu money lenders for pursuing their trade and business and fell an easy prey to the most cruel exploitation by the Hindus.
Political differences • Political differences between Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development of two nation theory • Hindi-Urdu controversy in 1864 was the first political tussle between the two communities.
cont. • The Hindus agitation against Urdu intensified Muslims apprehensions. • All India national congress was established in 1885 by a retired civil servant A.O.Hume. • At first Congress claimed that it would for the safeguards of the interest of all the communities in India, irrespective of their religion.
cont. • But with the time it turned into a pure Hindu body working for the interests of the Hindus only. • Congress demanded the introduction of representative democracy on British pattern, the representative democracy stands for majority rule and places a minority under the mandate of the majority for all political matters.
cont. • Congress made another demand that all appointments on high civil posts should made through competetive examinations because Muslims were not highly qualified and it was difficult for them to clear competetive examinations. • The acceptance of this demand would have rendered the Muslims economically destroyed.
cont. • In 1905 the province of Bengal was divided on totally administrative grounds. • This partition insured a number of political benefits for the Muslims but the entire Hindu community and the congress itself, erupted into volcanic agitation against the partition.
cont. • So the partition of Bengal was reverted in 1911. • Therefore Muslims demanded for separate electorate as a first step to provide safeguards to their political interests. • In 1930’s when congress assumed the government in 8 provinces it adopted prejudice attitude with the Muslims.
cont. • That attitude lead the Muslims to the final conclusion and they started demand for a separate homeland. • Muslim leadership represented the Muslims of Subcontinent at all levels effectively. Presidential address of AllamaIqbal in 1930 was very important turning and that was based on the concept of Muslim Nationalism.
Nationalism and AllamaIqbal • AllamaIqbal preached an idea of nationalism through his poetry based on Islamic unity and brotherhood. • He believed that the individual is not linked with the geographical boundaries but with a spiritual relationship. • He negated the concept of territorial nationalism and supported the concept of universal Islamic unity and brotherhood.
Recap of today’s lecture • What is Nationalism? • Evolution of Two-Nation theory, Nationalism & Quaid I Azam. • Differences between Hindu and Muslims • Religious difference • Hindu Nationalism • Cultural and Social differences • Economic & Educational differences • Political differences • Nationalism and AllamaIqbal
Conclusion There was an unbridgeable gulf between the Hindus and the Muslims the two communities were distinct from each other, ideologically, culturally, politically, socially and economically. In the presence of such deep rooted contrast of thinking and approach how the Muslims and Hindus, would the common nationality as claimed by Gandhi. These differences are infect, the two nation theory which became the basis of the nationalism among the Muslims which lead them to the establishment of Pakistan.