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Non-standard mesons. Stephen L. Olsen University of Hawai’i. Representing Belle. Fermilab seminar May 10, 2005. test of QCD: “running” a s. Probe QCD from other directions. non-qq or non-qqq hadron spectroscopies: Pentaquarks: e.g. an S=+1 baryon Glueballs:

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non standard mesons
Non-standard mesons

Stephen L. Olsen University of Hawai’i

Representing Belle

Fermilab seminar May 10, 2005

probe qcd from other directions
Probe QCD from other directions

non-qq or non-qqq hadron spectroscopies:

Pentaquarks:

e.g. an S=+1 baryon

Glueballs:

gluon-gluon color singlet states

Multi-quark mesons:

qq-gluon hybrid mesons

d

u

u

d

s

u

c

u

c

c

c

pentaquarks
Pentaquarks?

“Seen” in many experiments

but not seen in just as

many others

Compass

Jlab p

BES

Belle

BaBar

CDF

High interest:

1st pentaquark paper

has ~500 citations

pentaquark scoreboard
Pentaquark Scoreboard

Positive signals

Negative results

Also: Belle

Compass

L3

Jlab(CLAS) (gpK+Ksn)

Yes: 17

No: 18

narrow multi quark mesons
Narrow multi-quark mesons?
  • DsJ(2317) & DsJ(2457)
  • X(3872)ppJ/y

CLEO

BaBar

M(Ds*p)

M(Dsp)

Belle

M(ppJ/y)

what are the d sj states
What are the DsJ states?

Belle found

B D DsJ(2317)

 D DsJ(2457)

and

DsJ(2457)gDs

angular analysis for b d d sj d sj d s p g
J=1

J=1

J=0

J=2

Angular analysis for B D DsJ DsJDsp(g)

J=0

z

Jz=0

(p)

DsJ(2460) Ds 

DsJ(2317) Ds0

DsJ(2317) = 0+

DsJ(2547) = 1+

d sj states are likely ordinary l 1 cs mesons with perhaps some tetraquark mixture
DsJ states are likelyordinary L=1 cs mesons(with perhaps some tetraquark mixture)

Potential models got the masses wrong

Chiral models seem to work OK

See, e.g. Bardeen, Eichten & Hill PRD68, 054024

non standard mesons with hidden charm
non-standard mesons with “hidden charm”

u

c

u

  • standard cc mesons are:
    • best understood theoretically
    • narrow & non overlapping
  • c + c systems are commonly produced in B meson decays.

c

(i.e containing c & c)

c

c

c

c

Vcb

b

W-

cosqC

s

CKM favored

is the x 3872 non standard
Is the X(3872) non-standard?

BK p+p-J/y

y’p+p-J/y

X(3872)p+p-J/y

M(ppJ/y) –M(J/y)

its existence is well established seen in 4 experiments
Its existence is well establishedseen in 4 experiments

PRL 93, 072001

CDF

9.4s

11.6s

X(3872)

PRL 93, 162002

D0

PRD 71, 071103(R)

X(3872)

hep-ex/0406022

is it a cc meson
Is it a cc meson?

Could it be

one of these?

3872 MeV

These states

are already

identified

no obvious cc assignment
no obvious cc assignment

hc”

hc’

cc1’

y2

hc2

y3

M too low and G too small

angular dist’n rules out 1+-

3872

G(gJ/y) way too small

G(gcc1) too small;M(p+p-) wrong

pp hc should dominate

G( gcc2 & DD) too small

SLO hep-ex/0407033

go back to square 1
go back to square 1

Determine

JPC

quantum numbers

of the X(3872)

with minimal assumptions

areas of investigation
Areas of investigation
  • Search for radiative decays
  • Angular correlations in XppJ/y decays
  • Fits to the M(pp) distribution
  • Search for X(3872)D0D0p0
kinematic variables
Kinematic variables

BK gJ/y

Ecm/2

e+

e-

B B

ϒ(4S)

Ecm/2

DE

CM energy difference:

BK gJ/y

Beam-constrained mass:

Mbc

select b k g j y
Select BKg J/y

BKcc1; cc1g J/y

X(3872)?

M(gJ/y)

Mbc

Mbc

13.6 ± 4.4 X(3872)gJ/y

evts (>4s significance)

Bf(XgJ/y)

Bf(XppJ/y)

=0.14 ± 0.05

evidence for x 3872 p p p 0 j y reported last summer hep ex 0408116
Evidence for X(3872)p+p-p0 J/y(reported last summer hep-ex/0408116)

B-meson yields vs M(p+p-p0)

A virtual w(782)?

M(p+p-p0) MeV

12.4 ± 4.2 evts

Br(X3pJ/y)

Br(X2pJ/y)

Large (near max)

Isospin violation!!

= 1.0 ± 0.5

c 1 is established
C=+1 is established
  • Xg J/y only allowed for C=+1
  • same for X”w”J/y (reported earlier)
  • M(pp) for Xp+p-J/y looks like a r

CDF

angular correlations
Angular Correlations

J/y

Jz=0

J=0

X3872

J=0

K

z

Rosner (PRD 70 094023)

Bugg (PRD 71 016006)

Suzuki, Pakvasa (PLB 579 67)

pp

use 253 fb 1 275m bb prs exploit the excellent s n
Use 253 fb-1  ~275M BB prsexploit the excellent S/N

X(3872)p+p-J/y

y’p+p-J/y

Signal

(47 ev)

Sidebands

(114/10 = 11.4 ev)

example 1
Example: 1--

J/y

y’

Use BK y’

K

z

y’is 1--

dN/dcosq  sin2qKm

pp

y’: c2/dof = 8.9/9

qKm

K

compute angles in

J/y restframe

D.V. Bugg hep-ph/0410168v2

cos q k l for x 3872 events
|cosqKl| for X(3872) events

c2/dof = 60.3/9

fit with

sin2qKl + bkgd

see 8 evts/bin

expect 2~3evts/bin

background

scaled from

sidebands

X(3872) is not 1-- !

slide32
0++

M eJ/y·er

In the limit where

X(3872), pp, & J/y

rest frames coincide:

dN/dcosqlp sin2qlp

qlp

c2/dof = 34/9

rule out 0++

|cosqlp|

slide33
0-+

M  pJ/y· (eJ/yxer)

c2/dof=18/9

0-+ : sin2q sin2y

q

|cosq|

c2/dof=34/9

y

|cosy|

safe to rule out 0-+

slide34
1++

M | eX xeJ/yxer|

dN/dcosqdcosc sin2ql sin2c

c2/dof = 11/9

ql

K

|cosql|

c

c2/dof = 5/9

1++ looks okay!

|cosc|

compute angles in

X(3872) restframe

fits to the m pp distribution
Fits to the M(pp)Distribution

J/y

XrJ/y has a

q*(2l+1) centrifugal barrier

q*

X

q*

r

m pp can distinguish r j y s p waves
M(pp) can distinguish r-J/y S- & P-waves

P-wave: c2/dof = 71/39

S-wave: c2/dof = 43/39

(CL=0.1%)

(CL= 28%)

q*

roll-off

q*3

roll-off

Shape of M(pp) distribution near

the kinematic limit favors S-wave

select b k d 0 d 0 p 0 events
Select BKD0D0p0 events

D*0D0p0?

M(D0D0p0)

11.3±3.6 sig.evts (5.6s)

Bf(BKX)Bf(XDDp)=2.2±0.7±0.4x10-4

Preliminary

|DE|

|DE|

x 3872 dd p rules out 2
X(3872)DDp rules out 2++
  • 1++ : DD* in an S-wave  q*
  • 2++ : DDp in a D-wave  q*5

Strong threshold suppression

slide42
Eliminate all other factors and the one which remains must be the truth

Sherlock HolmesThe Sign of Four

can it be a 1 cc state
can it be a 1++ cc state?

1++ cc1’

  • Mass is ~100 MeV off
  • cc1’  r J/y not allowed by isospin.

Expect:

Bf(cc1’ppJ/y)<0.1%

BaBar measurement:

Bf(XppJ/y)>4%

3872

-G(cc1’gJ/y) / G(cc1’ppJ/y)

Expect: ~ 40

cc1’ component of

X(3872) is ≤ few%

  • G(X3872gJ/y) / G(X3872ppJ/y)
  • Measure: 0.14 ± 0.05
e e b b k x 0
From BaBar:

D(*)p+

e+e-B+B- K-X0

fully reconstructed

Jon Coleman

Moriond-QCD

March 2005

244 fb-1

  • Can measure absolute

B.F.’s of B-K-X0

J/y

Lower limit on BF(XJ/ypp) > 4.3%

@ 90% C.L

cc2

cc1

cc0

Very clear J/y and hc signals

N J/y=258+- 42

N hc =266 +-42

  • cc2,cc0<
  • X(3872) production much lower than for other Charmonium states:
  • can set lower limit on B.F.
intriguing fact

Intriguing fact

lowest mass

charmed meson

MX3872 =3872 ± 0.6 ± 0.5 MeV

mD0 + m D0* = 3871.2 ± 1.0 MeV

lowest mass spin=1

charmed meson

X(3872) is very near DD* threshold.

is it somehow related to that?

d 0 d 0 bound state deuson
D0D*0 bound state (deuson)?

Voloshin & Okun JETP Lett 23, 333 (1976)

Bander et al PRL 36, 695(1976)

DeRujula et al PRL 38, 317 (1977)

Manohar & Wise, NP B339, 17 (1993)

Tornqvist, Z Phys C61, 525(1994)

Tornqvist

hep-ph/0308277

deuteron:

deuson:

attractive nuclear force

attractive force??

c

c

p

n

D

p

D*

p

u

u

2 loosely bound qqq color singlets with Md = mp+mn- e

2 loosely bound

qq color singlets with

M= mD + mD* - d

x 3872 d 0 d 0 bound state
X(3872) = D0D*0 bound state?
  • JPC = 1++ is favored
  • M ≈ mD0 + mD0*
  • Maximal isospin violation is natural (& was predicted):

|I=1; Iz= 0> =1/2(|D+D*->+ |D0D*0>)

|I=0; Iz= 0> =1/2(|D+D*-> - |D0D*0>)

 |D0D*0> = 1/2(|10> - |00>)

  • G(XgJ/y) < G(XppJ/y) was predicted

Tornqvist PLB 590, 209 (2004)

Equal mixture of I=1 & I =0

Swanson PLB 588, 189 (2004)

Swanson PLB 598, 197 (2004)

x 3872 conclusion
X(3872) conclusion
  • JPC = 1++
  • cc content is small
  • matches all(?) expectations for a D0D*0 bound state

C

C

u

c

u

c

a non-qq meson

are there others is the x 3872 a one of a kind curiousity or the 1 st entry in a new spectroscopy
Are there others?Is the X(3872) a one-of-a-kind curiousity? or the 1st entry in a new spectroscopy?

Look at other B decays  hadrons+J/y:

BK h J/y

BK p J/y

BK w J/y

b k w j y in belle
BK wJ/y in Belle

“Y(3940)”

M≈3940 ± 11 MeV

G≈ 92 ± 24 MeV

Mbc

Mbc

Mbc

Bf(BKY)Bf(YwJ/y)=7.1±1.3±3.1x10-5

S.K. Choi et al hep-ex/0408126

to appear in PRL

y 3940 what is it
Y(3940): What is it?

Brambilla et al (QWG) hep-ph/0412158

Eichten, Lane & Quigg PRD 64, 094019

Barnes, Godfrey & Swanson hep-ph/0505002

  • Charmonium?
    • Conventional wisdom: wJ/y should not be a discovery mode for a cc state with mass above DD & DD* threshold!
  • Some kind of w-J/y threshold interaction?
    • the J/y is not surrounded by brown muck; can it act like an ordinary hadron?

w

J/y

y 3940 what is it cont d
Y(3940): What is it (cont’d)?
  • another tetraquark?
    • M ≈ 2mDs
    • not seen in YhJ/y
      • (h contains ss)
    • width too large??
    • no p exchange for DSDS

c

s

s

c

??

PRL 93, 041801

M(h J/y)

y 3940 what is it cont d1
Y(3940): What is it (cont’d) ?
  • cc-gluon hybrid?
    • predicted by QCD,
    • decays to DD and DD* are suppressed

(“open-charm” thresh = mD + m D** = 4.3 GeV)

    • large hadron+J/y widths are predicted
    • masses expected to be 4.3 ~ 4.4 GeV (higher than what we see)

Horn & Mandula PRD 17 898 (1978)

Isgur et al PRL 54, 869 (1995)

Close PLB 342, 369

McNiele et al PRD 65

094505

c

c

another one
Another one?
  • e+e- J/y + X
    • >4s)peak at M=394011 MeV
    • N=14833 evts
    • Width consistent w/ resolution

(= 32 MeV)

hc

hc

cc0

What is it? cc0 ? hc ??

s(e+e-)J/yhc = 25.6 ±2.8 ± 3.4 fb)

s(e+e-J/y (cc))/s(e+e-J/y X) = 0.82 ± 0.15 ± 0.14

look at e e j y d d
Look at e+e-J/y D(D(*))
  • Reconstruct a J/y & a D
    • use D0K-p+ & D+K-p+p+
  • Determine recoil mass
look at m dd
Look at M(DD(*))

3940 MeV

9.9 ± 3.3 evts

(4.5 s)

DD*

cc0DD*

DD

4.1 ± 2.2 evts

(~2 s)

could this be the h c strange m n y m n h c splitting pattern
Could this be the hc”?strange Mn(y)-Mn(hc) splitting pattern

y(3S)

4040

DM ~ 100 MeV??

hc

then increases?

y(2S)

3686

hc

DM = 48 ± 5 MeV

decreases

y(1S)

3096

DM = 118 ± 3 MeV

hc

could this be the h c
Could this be the hc”?

y(3S)

4040

D(*)D(*) coupling pushes y(3S)

up, increases the splitting

D*D*

hc

DD*

23S-13D1 mixing + DD

coupling pushes y(2S) down

splitting  smaller

y(2S)

DD

3686

hc

Probably OK

y(1S)

3096

hc

summary
Summary
  • X(3872):
    • JPC established as 1++
    • cc component is small (≤ few %)
    • all properties consistent with a D0D*0 bound state

u

c

a non-standard meson

u

c

  • Y(3940):
    • No obvious cc assignment
    • tetraquark seems unlikely
    • cc-gluon hybrid?

?????

needs more

study

c

c

  • X(3940):
    • Probably the hc”
fit cos q l p with 1 mc
Fit cosqlp with 1++ MC

c2/dof=11.9/9

|cosqlp|

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