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EDLT 528 DESIGNING EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR THE INTERNET. Using wikis in the development and formation of a Symphony Orchestra By Juan Melendez and Margaret Martin. GENERAL STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.
Using wikis in the development and formation of a Symphony Orchestra
Juan Melendez and Margaret Martin
Wikis is a simple tool, it is flexible and a powerful collaboration. It can be used for anything, from repositories or web link lists properly organized until the creation of encyclopedias. Typically, students’ assignments that take place in school are based only on one or individual tests. This contrasts with how we are working toward a more 21st century learning style, which enhances teamwork and getting the best results through collaborative efforts of the whole class and not just one person. With this in mind we performed an educational experience in a music research class, since this is where our experience is . The students were divided into three homogeneous groups. Where each student’s final grade would mostly consist of creating and maintaining a wikis with their group. The information for the wikis for each group was assigned by the teacher. Each student had to share information that they researched for their wikis with the other members of the group and then they had to combine all the information so that each member contributed to the wikis. Students were also required to evaluate the work of the other groups. Their feedback was to be done in a supportive was weather it was pro or con of the groups wikis. The results we obtained from our students on their performances were very interesting. We realized the use of wikis was a great tool to teach the students because they learned the importance of collaborative work.
The preparation of this research and the preservation of the material basis for this class are very important because inadequate planning interferes with instruction and causes disruptions and delays. All research conducted had a clear objective and the application was explained in detail because it was important for the students to benefit from one another’s knowledge of this material. The students (researchers) had to learn how to accentuate their arguments on the benefits that were gained and the practices that were used. To do this well, the students had to take into account the establishment and/or promote a set of criteria to evaluate the study. And the criteria was:
What is it for and who does it serve.
Significance, usefulness and benefits.
Does it really make any use of information?
Is it going to cover a gap of knowledge?
Could we have use a new model for obtaining and collecting the information?
In our case we were talking about musical education and the students based their research on a symphony orchestra. This leads us to inquire about the following topic. According to a small milestone of topics that were investigated were.
You may think that wikis can only be used for a certain level of students but with the versatility of this tool any students can learn to use this tool. Our approach was to target students ages 12-15. We taught the students how to create a wikis system that was aimed at an audience of music students. The students had to be willing to share their suggestion and creative work with the other class members as well as everyone that would be seeing this presentation. This was a big motivator for the students because they were what helped us give this project life.
Students had to be learning how to play the guitar, and have an interest of this culture that goes beyond being a mere performer. The students had to have a general knowledge of classical music performances and knowledge of the surrounding aspects. The students also had to know how to use Microsoft Office and be willing to learn how to create and use wikis.
The web 2.0 tool that we decided to work with was wikis. It is easily available and gives the students the opportunity to share information and evaluate the work that was developed in this research. Another thing we liked about using wikis was that you can share your information only with the people you want.
Kevin Wiki name musica 12345ID: chicoinsectoPW: kxrl89
Alan Wiki name Alan2 musicID: alans25PW: as1997
Wiki name Edmusical2
Here are the links of the wikis that were developed by the students with each of the concepts that were in the milestone.
As concussion I can say that through the construction of this project for me has been a great experience to use the concept of wikis. Now, it has been of great work and effort, because I started from scratch but in the end I can see that in the future, the use of this tool will be useful even use in education projects for which develop after the ability to build these custom block and upload information to the site, that we are given the opportunity to consult, share, edit or add new information with ease and fun.
By: Hortensia Ramos
The French horn, or the orchestral horn, is a member of the brass family, and consists of a metal tube that is about twelve feet long. The tube is coiled into a circular shape which flares into a bell at the base of the instrument. A musician plays the French horn by vibrating his or her lips in funnel shaped mouthpiece. The musician can then change the pitch of the instrument by moving the three valves and by changing his or her lip tension. The valves are usually fingered with the musician's left hand while the musician places his or her right hand in the bell of the instrument to create additional pitches and variations in tone qualities.
The French horn was developed around the 1650s in France and is a large version of the smaller crescent-shaped horns that existed at the time. The French hunting horn produced about twelve tones or the natural harmonic series and entered the orchestra in the 1700s. By the 1750s, the horn gained greater flexibility when hand-stopping was developed. This is the procedure described above whereby the musician puts his or her hand in the bell of the instrument. It allowed the musician to alter the natural notes as much as a whole step higher or lower. However, the horn did not make its next evolutionary step until the 19th century when valves were added. This allowed the musician to alter the length of the tubing by depressing or releasing one or more of the three valves.
The horn comes from a long tradition of instruments first used in ancient China (2000 BC), Egypt (1500 BC) and Scandinavia (1000 BC). These instruments were used for signaling and ceremony. However, because they had no valves, only a few notes could be played. By Roman times, and for centuries thereafter, valvelessnatural horns were common at military and civilian events.In the 1600's the natural horn was used in the royal mounted hunt. The instrument was coiled and fit over the arm of the player who rode with the hunt, playing fanfares and horn calls.
The horn became a regular member of the orchestra during the 1700's. Early in the century, a horn pitched in F was made in Vienna. This instrument had five detachable pieces of tubing called crooks. Crooks lengthened or shortened the horn so it could be played in the best key for the music. By employing crooks and using the right hand in the bell to stop certain notes, a skilled musician could play any noted of the scale.
The invention of valves in 1815 made the awkward crooks obsolete. Two type of valves were developed: rotary (revolving cylinder) valves, and piston (up and down) valves. The French made smaller bored horns with piston valves, while the Germans created larger bored horns with rotary valves. It is the German version that is referred to in North America as a French horn.
In 1898, a German named Fritz Kruspe introduced the double horn. The double horn combines the single F and single Bb horns into one instrument. It is widely accepted and played by virtually all professional players today.
Instruments made from animal horns have existed since ancient times - they were primarily used as signaling devices. The horn as a musical instrument has only existed for several hundred years.
One of the earliest "horn-like" instruments, the lur, dates back to sixth century B.C. Made of bronze, these horns were used on the battlefields by Scandinavian clans. It makes a loud, obnoxious sound, just perfect for striking terror into the enemy camp.
In Europe, horns gained popularity in the trendy sport of hunting. As this aristocratic sport spread, horn-makers experimented with different shapes and sizes to increase the range of notes possible. In 1636, French musical scholar Marin Mersenne wrote of four different kinds of horns in his HarmonieUniverselle:Le grand cor (the big horn), the cor à plusiers tours, (the horn of several turns), le cor qui n'aqu'unseul tour (the horn which has only one turn), and le huchet (the horn with which one calls from afar). Horns such as the cor de chasse and trompe de chasse (pictured left) fall into this latter category.
Shortly thereafter, the horn began to appear in the concert halls and theaters. Too raucous for inclusion with the fine oboes and violins in the orchestra pit though, at first the hunting horns were used only onstage in scenes depicting, naturally, the hunt. The horn at this point was not yet ready for serious artistic endeavors - only as "special effects," to give flashy theatrics to stage productions.
Meanwhile in Bohemia, Austria and Germany a more refined school of horn playing was developing under the auspices of Count Franz Anton von Sporck. The gentleman Count was, for all of his life, a hunting aficionado. He even founded The Order of St. Hubert (the patron saint of the hunt). Then while visiting France in the 1680's, Count von Sporck heard some cors de chasse at a hunt. Immediately after hearing the French hunting horns, von Sporck instructed that two men of his consort be taught to play the instrument. These two men, Wenzel Sweda and Peter Röllig became the source from which horn playing in all of Bohemia and Germany grew.
By: Alan Sebastian
The piano (short for pianoforte from the Italian) is a musical instrument classified as a stringed keyboard instrument casings by the traditional classification system according to the Hornbostel-Sachs classification, the piano is a simple string instrument. The musician who plays the piano called a pianist.
It consists of a sounding board, to which was added a keyboard, through which percussed steel strings with felt-covered hammers to produce the sound. The vibrations are transmitted through the bridges to the soundboard, which amplifies them. It consists of a multi-string chromatic harp, driven by an indirect impact mechanism, which switches have been added. It was invented around 1700 by Bartolomeo Cristofori Padua. Among its predecessors are instruments like the sitar, the monochord, the dulcimer, the clavichord and the harpsichord.
The word "piano" is derived from the original Italian name of the instrument, pianoforte (piano: "mild" and provided "strong"), given by its first builder, Bartolomeo Cristofori: cembalo col piano e forte (literally harpsichord with [sound ] soft and loud "). This refers to the ability of the piano to produce sounds with different intensities, depending on the weight that is applied to the keys. This feature differed from its predecessors, which could only produce a single volume.
The invention of the modern piano is credited to Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, at that time belonging to the Republic of Venice (Italy), who was hired by Prince Ferdinand II de 'Medici as curator of instruments. He was an expert harpsichord maker and was well as he could become familiar with the techniques of manufacture of keyboard stringed instruments. No one knows exactly the date on which Cristofori built the first piano but an inventory made by his patrons, the Medici family, indicates the existence of a piano in 1700. As a keyboard stringed instrument, the piano is similar to the harpsichord, from the point of view organological, and harpsichord music in aesthetic terms. These three instruments differ in their mechanisms of sound production. In a harpsichord, the strings are plucked by plectros. In a clavichord the strings are casings of small metal spikes (tangent) to remain in contact with the string until it stops pressing the key. In a piano, the keys are casings for hammers that immediately rebound allowing the string to vibrate freely. Cristofori's great success was to find the solution, without previous examples, the fundamental mechanical problem of piano design: the hammer of wood covered with leather was supposed to hit the rope, but keep in touch with her because the sound muffled, as with tangents were in contact with the strings of the clavichord. On the other hand, the hammer must return to its rest position without bouncing violently, and, if possible, should be allowed to repeat a note rapidly. The Cristofori's hammer mechanism served as a model for the many different approaches to piano actions beyond. While Cristofori's early instruments were made with thin strings and were much quieter than the modern piano, compared to the clavichord (the only previous keyboard instrument capable of controlling the dynamic range minimally through the keyboard) were considerably stronger and could better maintain the power of sound.
Grand pianoA grand piano is a type of piano where the strings and the soundboard are horizontal. The grand pianos have a top cover that can be opened so that the sounds produced by the strings go abroad without barriers of any kind.
Piano vertical or wall.The upright piano is characterized by the strings, the hammers and the soundboard in a vertical position, perpendicular to the floor
The electronic piano is an invention of the twentieth century. It has the same appearance of the piano. The difference is that the sound comes from means of electronic synthesis. You can also play the sound of different instruments and often incorporates songs and rhythms default.
Al tocar el violín es muy importante la posición del cuerpo, de los brazos y de los dedos, así como la colocación del instrumento y el arco para obtener el mejor sonido.
Con este instrumento es posible tocar dos notas al mismo tiempo deslizando el arco por encima de dos cuerdas adyacentes.
El violín es un instrumento medieval que se llamaba fídula o viola de arco que surge a partir del siglo IX-X d.c., con el paso del tiempo se fue perfeccionando hasta llegar en el siglo XV a la Viola de Braccio, en Italia, que dio lugar al violín, pero fue en el siglo XVI cuando se creó el verdadero violín, que ha llegado a nuestros días casi sin cambio alguno.
Existieron varios inventores del violín, pero destacaron Andrea Amati y Antonio Stradivarius que eran constructores de instrumentos denominados Luthiers o Violeros, ellos vivieron en Italia en el siglo XVI.