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視覺與人因設計課程報告 . The effects of link format and screen location on visual search of web pages. JONATHAN LING* and PAUL VAN SCHAIK. Keywords: Usability; Internet; Visual search; Navigation; Hyperlinks. 第四組. 謝東峻 朱佩璇 李仁維 王怡婷 陳彥勳 洪崑 涵 顏 慷. 視覺與人因設計課程報告. Introduction.

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slide1

視覺與人因設計課程報告

The effects of

link format andscreen location

on visual searchof web pages

JONATHAN LING* and PAUL VAN SCHAIK

Keywords: Usability; Internet; Visual search; Navigation; Hyperlinks

第四組

謝東峻 朱佩璇 李仁維 王怡婷 陳彥勳 洪崑涵顏 慷

slide2

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

謝東峻 朱佩璇 李仁維 王怡婷 陳彥勳 洪崑涵顏 慷

slide3

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Intro

duction

  • Introdction

Navigation accounts for 90% of all recorded web browser actions(Tauscher and Greenberg )

Method

The most common method for navigating web pages is through the use of hypertext links(hyperlinks)(Trelor)

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide4

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Intro

duction

Research Background

有些使用者的介面設計因素會影響到視覺的運作。(Galitz 1997)

目前的相關文字展示並沒有被系統化的觀察,只有一些對於網站使用的經驗研究。(Diaper and Waelend 2000,Sears 2000)

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide5

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Intro

duction

Research Purpose

讓連結能夠格式化,

使受試者在一個操弄變因下觀察,

了解連結的設計方式如何影響受試者的表現

(正確性和速度)

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide6

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

experimental

Two factor mixed measures design

A. Repeated measures factor(hyperlinks)

  • (1) plain text
  • (no underlining,no emboldening)
  • (2) bold text
  • (3) underlined text
  • (4) text with both

B. Independent measures factor

(area of focus on the web page)

  • (1) navigation area
  • (2) content area

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide7

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Participants

  • 49 participants(42female , 7male)
  • 20 took part in navigation area search

29 took part in content area search

  • 57% under 21 , 20%21-25 , 13%26-50
  • 96% had been using WWW more than 1 year
  • 4% had been using WWW more than 6 months
  • 53% using WWW at least once a day

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide8

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Materials and apparatus

  • IE 6.0
  • Saved as graphic image files
  • Larger frame(85% , content area)
  • Smaller frame(15% , navigation area)

with five hypertext links

  • Links #0000FF(blue) , text #000000(black)
  • Arial 12

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide9

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Procedure

  • 15~20 participants taking part in a classroom
  • 8 trials for practice series
  • 72 trials presented in random order
  • Questions after all trials

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide10

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Experimental trial

  • “try to find a hyperlink in a screen of text”
  • Press ‘p’ when present , press ‘a’ when absent
  • blank white screen (1,1.5,2s randomly)

    ↓

(2) Black target word in centre(1s,Arial 48)

    ↓

(3) blank white screen (1,1.5,2s randomly)

    ↓

(4) Web page

  • Next trial start automatically after 5s

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide11

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Questions

  • Presented with all possible paired combinations of links
  • one in a time andchoose their preferred
  • Asked a series of seven aesthetic questions

about each of link formats

Method

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

Results

slide12

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Method

Analysis of hits

(hit : a correct response to a target word

that was present)

-Accuracy

-speed

Analysis of correct rejections

(rejection : a correct response to a target word

that was absent )

-Accuracy

-speed

Associations between performance measures

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide13

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Analysis of hits(accuracy)

Method

Results

Link format & screen area : no effect

Navigation area & content area : effect

Link codes for navigation area : no significant differences

Bold/plain & bold/bold-underlined: significant differences

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide14

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Analysis of hits(accuracy)

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide15

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Analysis of hits(speed)

Method

Link format & screen area : effect

Navigation area & content area : effect

Plain for navigation and content : significant differences

Link Format: significant differences

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide16

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Method

  • Analysis of hits(speed)

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide17

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Analysis of correct rejections(accuracy)

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Link format & screen area : no main effect

Navigation area & content area : no differences

Discussion

slide18

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Analysis of correct rejections(speed)

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Link format & screen area : effect

Navigation area : not significant

content area : significant

Plain/bold & Plain/bold-underline & bold/bold-underlined & underlined/bold-underlined & plain/underline: significant differences

Discussion

slide19

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Method

  • Associations between performance measures

Speed for hits and rejections :

significantly correlated for 4 types of link format.

Speed and accuracy :

no significant correlation

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide20

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Preference

Method

Results

Effect of link format on preference : significant

Effect of screen area: not significant

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide21

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Preference

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

The interaction between link format & screen area

 closed to significance.

Discussion

slide22

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Method

  • Preference

Effect of link format for

Navigation areasignificantContent areasignificantBoth areasignificant

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide23

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Preference

Method

Differences for underlined betweenNavigation and content areas significant(only)

Differences between plain & anyotherformat  significantall pairs  significant(except bold & bold-underlined)

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide24

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Aesthetic value

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Effect of link format on aesthetic valuesignificant

Effect of screen area on aesthetic value not significant

Discussion

slide25

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Aesthetic value

Method

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Interaction between link format & screen for aesthetic

 significant

Discussion

slide26

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Aesthetic value

Method

Navigation area: Differences betweenAny types of link formatnot significant

Content area: Differences between Plain & boldsignificant Plain & bold-underlinedsignificantBold & underlinedsignificantUnderlined & bold-underlinedsignificant(otherwise: plain & underlined, bold & blod-underlined)

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide27

Introduction

視覺與人因設計課程報告

  • Other correlation

Method

Preference and aesthetic value was not correlated

for any of the types of link format.

% of hits with preference plain significant (Negetive)bold-underlinedsignificant

Aesthetic value and reaction time for hits for bold links

significant

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide28

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Findings

Method

Screen Area

hasNOConnection withAccuracy of Hit/Correct Rejection

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide29

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Findings

Method

  • Accuracy
  • Bold Links: Navigation Area > Content Area
  • In Content Area: Bold-underlined > Bold, Plain

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide30

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Findings

Method

  • Speed
  • In Content Area: Bold-underlined, Bold > Plain
  • In Navigation Area: Bold, Plain > Bold-underlined
  • Plain and UnderlinedLinks: Navigation Area > Content Area

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide31

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Findings

Method

  • Correct Rejections
  • In Content Area: Bold-underlined, Bold > Plain
  • Reaction Time

Navigation Area < Content Area

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide32

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Level of Preference

Method

  • In All Screen Location:

Bold-underlined, Bold > Plain-underlined, Plain

  • Level of Preference:

Navigation Area > Content Area

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide33

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Implication

Method

  • To Optimal Levels of Texture Information Performance:
  • Both Color and Format have Significant Effect
  • Navigation and Content Area Need to be Treat Differently

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide34

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Discussion

Method

  • Although milliseconds may seem too small to matter, milliseconds added to each low-level step of interactive behavior quickly add up
  • Establishing the reliability of these results through replication is the first necessary stage in confirming the guidelines derived from these data.

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide35

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Conclusion

Method

  • Earlier research has demonstrated the importance of navigation within web pages.
  • This study has focused on one element of navigation behavior — visual search for hyperlink information — and has shown that link format is an important part of both success and speed of navigation tasks.

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide36

視覺與人因設計課程報告

Introduction

  • Conclusion

Method

  • Visual search is just one of the processes that influence information retrieval in web.
  • Future research: explore other processes.

Results

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

Discussion

slide37

視覺與人因設計課程報告

謝謝

大家

The effects of link format and screen location

on visual searchof web pages

第四組

謝東峻 朱佩璇 李仁維 王怡婷 陳彥勳 洪崑涵顏 慷