digital video compression fundamentals and standards
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 53

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards. Web Technology. Outline. Introduction Video Compression Standards Simulation Reference Software Future Work and Conclusions. Outline. Introduction Video Compression Standards Simulation Reference Software Future Work and Conclusions.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards' - novia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Video Compression Standards
  • Simulation Reference Software
  • Future Work and Conclusions

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

outline1
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Video Compression Standards
  • Simulation Reference Software
  • Future Work and Conclusions

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

introduction 1 2
Introduction (1/2)
  • Why video compression technique is important ?
  • One movie video without compression
    • 720 x 480 pixels per frame
    • 30 frames per second
    • Total 90 minutes
    • Full color

The total quantity of data = 167.96 G Bytes !!

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

introduction 2 2
Introduction (2/2)
  • What is the difference between video compression and image compression?
    • Temporal Redundancy
  • Coding method to remove redundancy
    • Intraframe Coding
      • Remove spatial redundancy
    • Interframe Coding
      • Remove temporal redundancy

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the most intuitive method to remove spatiotemporal redundancy
The most intuitive method to remove Spatiotemporal redundancy
  • 3-Dimensional DCT
    • Remove spatiotemporal correlation
    • Good for low motion video
    • Bad for high motion video

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the most popular method to remove temporal redundancy
The most popular method to remove temporal redundancy
  • The Block-Matching Algorithm

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

matching function
Matching Function
  • The dissimilarity between two blocks and
  • The matching criteria
    • Mean square error (MSE)
      • High precision is needed
    • Mean absolute difference (MAD)
      • Low precision is enough

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the exhaustive block matching algorithm
The Exhaustive Block-Matching Algorithm

Reference Frame

Current Frame

Motion

Vector

|A|=12

12 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

12 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

12 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

12 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 23 34 44 55 66 77 88

11 23 34 44 55 66 77 88

11 23 34 44 55 66 77 88

11 23 34 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

Search Range

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

fast block matching algorithms
Fast Block-Matching Algorithms
  • EBMA needs Intensive computation
  • Fast Algorithm is needed
    • Find the possible local optimal

Reference Frame

Current Frame

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

fast block matching algorithms1
Fast Block-Matching Algorithms
  • The characteristics of fast algorithm
    • Not accurate as EBMA
    • Save large computation
  • Two famous fast algorithm
    • 2-D logarithm Search Method
    • Three Steps Search Method

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

2 d logarithm search method
2-D logarithm Search Method

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

4

4

4

1

2

2

4

3

3

4

4

3

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

three step search method
Three Step Search Method

2

2

2

3

3

3

1

1

2

1

1

3

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

multiresolution motion estimation 1 3
Multiresolution Motion Estimation (1/3)
  • The number of levels is L
  • l-th level images of the target frames

where is set of pixels at level L

  • At the l-th level, the MV is
  • At the l-th level, the estimated MV is
  • Determine update such that error is minimized
  • The new motion vector is

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

multiresolution motion estimation 2 3
Multiresolution Motion Estimation (2/3)
  • Variable block size method

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

multiresolution motion estimation 3 3
Multiresolution Motion Estimation (3/3)

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

outline2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Video Compression Standards
  • Simulation Reference Software
  • Future Work and Conclusions

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the development of video compression standards
The Development of Video Compression Standards

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 1 standard
The MPEG-1 Standard
  • Group of Pictures
  • Motion Estimation
  • Motion Compensation
  • Differential Coding
  • DCT
  • Quantization
  • Entropy Coding

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

group of pictures 1 2
Group of Pictures (1/2)
  • I-frame (Intracoded Frame)
    • Coded in one frame such as DCT.
    • This type of frame do not need previous frame
  • P-frame (Predictive Frame)
    • One directional motion prediction from a previous frame
      • The reference can be either I-frame or P-frame
    • Generally referred to as inter-frame
  • B-frame (Bi-directional predictive frame)
    • Bi-directional motion prediction from a previous or future frame
      • The reference can be either I-frame or P-frame
    • Generally referred to as inter-frame

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

group of pictures 2 2
Forward Motion Compensation

N=9

M=3

GOP

I

B

B

P

B

B

P

B

B

I

Bidirectional Motion Compensation

Group of Pictures (2/2)
  • The distance between two nearest P-frame or P-frame and I-frame
    • denoted by M
  • The distance between two nearest I-frames
    • denoted by N

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 1 encoder 1 4
The MPEG-1 Encoder (1/4)

Intra-frame

Residue

DCT

DCT

DCT

Q

Q

Q

Entropy

Coding

Entropy

Coding

Entropy

Coding

Inter-frame

Q-1

Q-1

Motion

Compensation

Motion

Compensation

Motion Vector

IDCT

IDCT

Motion

Estimation

Motion

Estimation

Frame

Memory

Frame

Memory

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 1 encoder 2 4
The MPEG-1 Encoder (2/4)
  • Differential Coding
      • is the input image
      • is the predictive image
  • DCT

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 1 encoder 3 4
The MPEG-1 Encoder (3/4)
  • Quantization
    • Intra quantization matrix
    • Inter quantization matrix

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 1 encoder 4 4
The MPEG-1 Encoder (4/4)
  • Motion Compensation
    • Exploit motion vector and the previous reconstructed frame to generate the predictive frame
      • is the compensated image
      • is the previous image
      • is the motion vector

Reference frame

Target frame

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 2 standard
The MPEG-2 Standard
  • Field/Frame DCT Coding
  • Field/Frame Prediction Mode Selection
  • Alternative Scan Order
  • Various Picture Sampling Formats
  • User Defined Quantization Matrix

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

progressive scan and interlaced scan
Progressive Scan and Interlaced Scan

Progressive Scan

Interlaced Scan

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

field frame dct coding
Field DCT Coding

Luminance MB

Frame DCT Coding

Field/Frame DCT Coding
  • The field type DCT
    • Fast motion video
  • The frame type DCT
    • Slow motion video

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

alternative scan order
Zig-zag scan

Alternate scan

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.72 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.85 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1.27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3.62 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2D DCT

Alternative Scan Order
  • Zigzag scan order
    • Frame DCT
  • Alternative scan order
    • Field DCT

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 2 encoder 2 2
The MPEG-2 Encoder (2/2)
  • Quantization
    • User can change the quantization if necessary
    • Intra quantization matrix
    • Inter quantization matrix
  • Various picture sampling formats
    • 4:4:4
    • 4:2:2
    • 4:2:0

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the mpeg 2 encoder 1 2
The MPEG-2 Encoder (1/2)

SNR Enhanced Layer

Q

Entropy

Coding

  • Base Layer
    • Basic quality requirement
    • For SDTV
  • Enhanced Layer
    • High quality service
    • For HDTV

+

Bits Enhance

Q-1

+

Bits Base

Entropy

Coding

DCT

Q

Q-1

+

Q-1

Base Layer

+

Motion

Compensation

IDCT

+

Motion

Estimation

+

Frame

Memory

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

h 264 avc
H.264/AVC
  • Variable Block Size
  • Multiple Reference Frames
  • Integer Transform
  • Intra Prediction
  • In-loop Deblocking Filtering
  • 1/4-pel Resolution Motion Estimation
  • CAVLC

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

variable block size
16 x 16

16 x 8

8 x 16

8 x 8

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

2

3

8 x 8

8 x 4

4 x 8

4 x 4

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

2

3

Variable Block Size
  • The fixed block size may not be suitable for all motion objects
    • Improve the flexibility of comparison
    • Reduce the error of comparison
  • 7 types of blocks for selection

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

multiple reference frames
Multiple Reference Frames
  • The neighboring frames are not the most similar in some cases
  • The B-frame can be reference frame
    • B-frame is close to the target frame in many situations

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

integer transform for reducing the spatial redundancy 1 2
Integer Transform for Reducing The Spatial Redundancy (1/2)
  • The transform matrix C
  • 4×4 Block Size
  • Separable Integer Transform
  • The transform coefficients are CXCT

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

integer transform for reducing the spatial redundancy 2 2
Integer Transform for Reducing The Spatial Redundancy (2/2)

C

X

CT

E

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

intra prediction
Intra

Prediction

Transform/

Quantization

Entropy

Coding

Vertical

Horizontal

DC

Vertical left

Diagonal down-left

Diagonal right

+

+

+

+

Horizontal down

+

Horizontal up

+

Mean

+

+

Intra Prediction
  • Predict the similarity between the neighboring pixels in one frame in advance, and exploit differential coding transform coding to remove the redundancy.

Vertical right

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

remove perceptual redundancy
q0

q1

q2

q3

p3

p2

p1

p0

Remove Perceptual Redundancy
  • In-loop deblocking filtering
    • Remove blocking artifact
      • Result from block based motion compensation
      • Result from block based transform coding

QP

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

1 4 pel resolution motion estimation
Integer search positions

Best integer match

Half-pel search positions

Best half-pel match

Quarter-pel search positions

Best quarter-pel match

1/4-pel Resolution Motion Estimation

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

the h 264 avc encoder
The H.264/AVC Encoder

Control Data

Coder

Controller

Residue

Transform/

Quantization

Entropy

Coding

Inverse

Transform/

De-Quantization

Motion Vector

Motion

Compensation

Intra-frame

Prediction

De-blocking

Filter

Motion

Estimation

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

outline3
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Video Compression Standards
  • Simulation Reference Software
  • Future Work and Conclusions

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

h 264 reference software
H.264 Reference Software

http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/

  • JM
    • Current software version: JM 15
    • Benchmark

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

reference software demo
Reference Software Demo

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

outline4
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Video Compression Standards
  • Simulation Reference Software
  • Future Work and Conclusions

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

future work
Future Work
  • Fast Mode Decision Algorithm
  • Interpolation Filter Design
  • Deblocking Filter Design
  • DCT-Based Motion Estimation
  • Implementation Based on TI DSP

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

fast mode decision algorithm
Fast Mode Decision Algorithm
  • The computational cost of H.264 is large
    • Variable block-size ME
    • Multiple reference frames
  • Fast mode decision is needed for reducing the computation time

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

interpolation filter design
Interpolation Filter Design
  • In order to estimate and compensate the fractional-pel displacements
  • Adaptive Interpolation filter for replacing the fixed coefficient filter

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

deblocking filter design
Deblocking Filter Design
  • Block based ME and Transform result in the annoying blocking artifact
  • Reduce the blocking artifact can increase the quality of compressed video

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

dct based motion estimation
DCT Based Motion Estimation
  • Robust even in noisy environment
  • Complexity comparison
    • DCT Based ME
      • O(M2)
    • Block Based ME
      • O(N2×M2)
  • Concept
    • Pseudo Phase
    • Similar to

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

implementation based on ti dsp
Implementation Based on TI DSP
  • TMS320C6416
  • TI DM642

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

conclusions
Conclusions

Thank You

Q & A

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

references 1 2
References (1/2)
  • [1] Yun Q.Shi and Huifang Sun, “Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering: Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Standards”, CRC press, 2000.
  • [2] Yao Wand, Jorn Ostermann and Ya-Qin Zhang, “Video Processing and Communications”, Prentice Hall, 2007.
  • [3] Richardson, Lain E. G., “Video Codec Design: Developing Image and Video Compression Systems”, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2002.
  • [4] Barry G, Haskell, Atul Puri and Arun N. Netravali, “Digital Video : An Introduction to MPEG-2”, Boston : Kluwer Academic, 1999.
  • [5] T. Wiegand, G. J. Sullivan, G. Bjontegaard, and A. Luthra, “Overview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and systems for video Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 560-576, July 2003.
  • [6] G. Sullivan and T. Wiegand, “Video Compression - From Concepts to the H.264/AVC Standard”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Advances in Video Coding and Delivery, December 2004.
  • [7] 酒井善則、吉田俊之 共著,白執善 編譯,“影像壓縮技術”,全華,2004.

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

references 2 2
References (2/2)
  • [8] Thomas Wedi, “Adaptive Interpolation Filters and High-Resolution Displacements For Video Coding”, IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems For Video Technology, vol.
  • [9] Dong-Hwan Kim, Hwa-Yong Oh, O˘guzhan Urhan, Sarp Ertürk and Tae-Gyu Chang, “Optimal Post-Process/In-Loop Filtering for Improved Video Compression Performance”, IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, Nov. 2007.
  • [10] Shu-Fa Lin, Meng-Ting Lu, and Homer Chen, ” Fast Multi-Frame Motion Estimation for H.264 andIts Applications to Complexity-Aware Streaming”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2005.
  • [11] Kai-Ting Cheng and Hsueh-Ming Hang, “Acceleration and Implementation of H.264 Encoder and Scalable Extension of H.264 Decoder on TI DSP Platform”, master thesis, June 2007

Digital Video Compression Fundamentals and Standards

ad