Warm-Up Questions. Where are the metals located on the periodic table? Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table?. Warm-Up Questions. Where are the metals located on the periodic table? left
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Warm-Up Questions • Where are the metals located on the periodic table? • Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? • Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table?
Warm-Up Questions • Where are the metals located on the periodic table? • left • Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? • right • Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table? • Center – short columns
Naming Compounds Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds
What are Ionic Compounds? An Ionic Compound contains oppositely charged particles. • An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has a positive or negative charge. • Cation: a positively charged ion (often a metal) • Examples: Mg2+, Ca2+, Li+ • Anion: a negatively charged ion (often a nonmetal) • Examples: Cl-, O2-, Br-
Ionic Compounds (cont’d) • Often, ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal… • NaCl sodium chloride • LiBr2 lithium bromide • CaO calcium oxide • What trends do you notice with the names of these ionic compounds?
Rules for NamingSimple Ionic Compounds • Name the cation first, the anion second. • Example: In CsBr, Cs is the cation (metal), Br is the anion (nonmetal) • Cations use the element name. • Anions take their name from the root of the element name plus the suffix –ide. • From our example above, CsBr would be named Cesium Bromide
Try these Ionic Compounds… • NaBr • LiCl2 • MgS • CsF
Try these Ionic Compounds… • NaBr • Sodium bromide • LiCl2 • Lithium chloride • MgS • Magnesium sulfide • CsF • Cesium fluoride
Covalent Compounds • Covalent Compounds come about by the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. • Usually, covalent compounds are made of two nonmetals. • Example: P2O5, NH3 • You may also see these called “binary molecular compounds”
Rules For NamingCovalent (or Binary Molecular) Compounds • The first element is named first, using the entire element name • The second element is named, using the root of the element name plus the suffix –ide. • Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element present in the compound. • **Exception – THE FIRST ELEMENT NEVER USES THE PREFIX “MONO”!
Examples of NamingCovalent Compounds • P2O5 • There are 2 phosphorus atoms (shown by the subscript) • There are 5 oxygen atoms (also shown by the subscript) • Name the first element with its prefix • Diphosphorus • Name the second element with its prefix and the suffix –ide • Pentoxide (not pentaoxide, because of the two vowels) • Put them together diphosphoruspentoxide
Try these Covalent Compounds… • CCl4 • N2O • NF3 • CO
Try these Covalent Compounds… • CCl4 • Carbon tetrachloride (not monocarbon…) • N2O • Dinitrogen monoxide • NF3 • Nitrogen trifluoride • CO • Carbon monoxide
More Naming Compounds Polyatomic Ions More than one Oxidation Number
More Ionic Compounds We said before that an ion could be a single atom or group of atoms with a charge. • A monatomic ion is a single ion with a charge. • Example: K+, Cl- • A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms that are bonded together, that collectively have a charge. • Example: OH-, NO3-
Naming Ionic Compoundswith Polyatomic Ions • If a compound contains a polyatomic ion, you simply NAME THE ION (don’t worry about changing any part of the polyatomic ion) • Examples • NaOH sodium hydroxide • (NH4)2S ammonium sulfide • NOTICE: you still need to add –ideto the end if the second end is a monatomic ion!! • You DO NOT need to memorize the polyatomics – you will be given a chart of these!
Try these Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomics… • KOH • LiNO3 • MgSO4 • NH4Cl
Try these Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomics… • KOH • Potassium hydroxide • LiNO3 • Lithium nitrate • MgSO4 • Magnesium sulfate • NH4Cl • Ammonium Chloride
Oxidation Numbers • Oxidation Number is the fancy word for the charge on a monatomic ion • Groups 1A and 2A metals have only ONE oxidation number • Transition metals and metals on the right side of the periodic table (groups 3A and 4A) often have more than one oxidation number • Some periodic tables list the oxidation numbers of each element…
Examples of Ionic CompoundsMetals having multiple oxidation #s • The compound formed between Fe2+ and O2- is written as FeO. • You would name it Iron (II) oxide. • Keep the naming rules just as you would do for any other ionic compound • Add roman numerals (ex: II) to show the charge on the iron. • Only use the roman numerals for the first element!
Just try a couple… • CuS (made from Cu2+ and S2-) • PbCl4(made from Pb4+ and Cl-)
Just try a couple… • CuS (made from Cu2+ and S2-) • Copper (II) sulfide • PbCl4(made from Pb4+ and Cl-) • Lead (IV) chloride
Writing Chemical Formulas Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds
Writing formulas for Ionic Compounds • Suppose you need to determine the formula unit of the compound that contains both sodium and chloride ions. • First, write the symbol and charge for each ion Na+Cl- • The ratio of ions must be such that the sum of positive ions must equal the sum of the negative ions the sum of the oxidation numbers must be zero. • Since Na is +1 and Cl is -1, these two must be in a one-to-one ratio NaCl
Let’s Simplify the Process • Crossing over charges can be used to write formulas if you know the two charges… • Example: K+ and S2- “Cross over charges” – superscripts become subscripts on opposite ion and lose the +/- K+1 S2- K2S1 but is written K2S because you do not write the subscript “1”
Try writing these formulas… • Lithium chloride • Magnesium fluoride • Potassium oxide • Lead (II) Chloride
Try writing these formulas… • Lithium chloride • LiCl • Magnesium fluoride • MgF2 • Potassium oxide • K2O • Lead (II) chloride • PbCl2
A note about subscript ratios • After crossing over charges, you must reduce the subscripts down to the lowest common ratio! • Example: Magnesium Oxide Mg2+ O2- Mg2O2 Reduce down to MgO Because the 2:2 ratio reduces to 1:1
Writing formulas withPolyatomic Ions • Put the polyatomic ion in parentheses • DO NOT CHANGE ANY PART OF THE POLYATOMIC ION • Cross-over charges outside the parentheses • Example: ammonium oxide (NH4)+ O2- (NH4)2O
Try a few… • Magnesium Sulfate • Calcium Hydroxide • Sodium nitrate
Try a few… • Magnesium Sulfate • MgSO4 • Calcium Hydroxide • Ca(OH)2 • Sodium nitrate • NaNO3
Finally, something easier…Formulas for covalent compounds • Use the prefixes to identify the subscripts • Example: carbon dioxide has 1 carbon and 2 oxygens So, it would be written as CO2
Try these last ones… • Triphosphorus Pentachloride • Dinitrogen Trioxide • Carbon dioxide • Dihydrogen monosulfide
Try these last ones… • Triphosphorus Pentachloride • P3Cl5 • Dinitrogen Trioxide • N2O3 • Carbon dioxide • CO2 • Dihydrogen monosulfide • H2S