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Warm-Up Questions. Where are the metals located on the periodic table? Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table?. Warm-Up Questions. Where are the metals located on the periodic table? left

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Warm-Up Questions


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    1. Warm-Up Questions • Where are the metals located on the periodic table? • Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? • Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table?

    2. Warm-Up Questions • Where are the metals located on the periodic table? • left • Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? • right • Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table? • Center – short columns

    3. Naming Compounds Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds

    4. What are Ionic Compounds? An Ionic Compound contains oppositely charged particles. • An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has a positive or negative charge. • Cation: a positively charged ion (often a metal) • Examples: Mg2+, Ca2+, Li+ • Anion: a negatively charged ion (often a nonmetal) • Examples: Cl-, O2-, Br-

    5. Ionic Compounds (cont’d) • Often, ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal… • NaCl  sodium chloride • LiBr2 lithium bromide • CaO  calcium oxide • What trends do you notice with the names of these ionic compounds?

    6. Rules for NamingSimple Ionic Compounds • Name the cation first, the anion second. • Example: In CsBr, Cs is the cation (metal), Br is the anion (nonmetal) • Cations use the element name. • Anions take their name from the root of the element name plus the suffix –ide. • From our example above, CsBr would be named Cesium Bromide

    7. Try these Ionic Compounds… • NaBr • LiCl2 • MgS • CsF

    8. Try these Ionic Compounds… • NaBr • Sodium bromide • LiCl2 • Lithium chloride • MgS • Magnesium sulfide • CsF • Cesium fluoride

    9. Covalent Compounds • Covalent Compounds come about by the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. • Usually, covalent compounds are made of two nonmetals. • Example: P2O5, NH3 • You may also see these called “binary molecular compounds”

    10. Rules For NamingCovalent (or Binary Molecular) Compounds • The first element is named first, using the entire element name • The second element is named, using the root of the element name plus the suffix –ide. • Prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element present in the compound. • **Exception – THE FIRST ELEMENT NEVER USES THE PREFIX “MONO”!

    11. Some Common Prefixes

    12. Examples of NamingCovalent Compounds • P2O5 • There are 2 phosphorus atoms (shown by the subscript) • There are 5 oxygen atoms (also shown by the subscript) • Name the first element with its prefix • Diphosphorus • Name the second element with its prefix and the suffix –ide • Pentoxide (not pentaoxide, because of the two vowels) • Put them together  diphosphoruspentoxide

    13. Try these Covalent Compounds… • CCl4 • N2O • NF3 • CO

    14. Try these Covalent Compounds… • CCl4 • Carbon tetrachloride (not monocarbon…) • N2O • Dinitrogen monoxide • NF3 • Nitrogen trifluoride • CO • Carbon monoxide

    15. Now its time for somePRACTICE!

    16. More Naming Compounds Polyatomic Ions More than one Oxidation Number

    17. More Ionic Compounds We said before that an ion could be a single atom or group of atoms with a charge. • A monatomic ion is a single ion with a charge. • Example: K+, Cl- • A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms that are bonded together, that collectively have a charge. • Example: OH-, NO3-

    18. Common Polyatomic Ions

    19. Naming Ionic Compoundswith Polyatomic Ions • If a compound contains a polyatomic ion, you simply NAME THE ION (don’t worry about changing any part of the polyatomic ion) • Examples • NaOH sodium hydroxide • (NH4)2S  ammonium sulfide • NOTICE: you still need to add –ideto the end if the second end is a monatomic ion!! • You DO NOT need to memorize the polyatomics – you will be given a chart of these!

    20. Try these Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomics… • KOH • LiNO3 • MgSO4 • NH4Cl

    21. Try these Ionic Compounds w/ Polyatomics… • KOH • Potassium hydroxide • LiNO3 • Lithium nitrate • MgSO4 • Magnesium sulfate • NH4Cl • Ammonium Chloride

    22. Oxidation Numbers • Oxidation Number is the fancy word for the charge on a monatomic ion • Groups 1A and 2A metals have only ONE oxidation number • Transition metals and metals on the right side of the periodic table (groups 3A and 4A) often have more than one oxidation number • Some periodic tables list the oxidation numbers of each element…

    23. Common Ions Based on Groups

    24. Common Ions of Transition Metals and Groups 3A and 4A

    25. Examples of Ionic CompoundsMetals having multiple oxidation #s • The compound formed between Fe2+ and O2- is written as FeO. • You would name it Iron (II) oxide. • Keep the naming rules just as you would do for any other ionic compound • Add roman numerals (ex: II) to show the charge on the iron. • Only use the roman numerals for the first element!

    26. Just try a couple… • CuS (made from Cu2+ and S2-) • PbCl4(made from Pb4+ and Cl-)

    27. Just try a couple… • CuS (made from Cu2+ and S2-) • Copper (II) sulfide • PbCl4(made from Pb4+ and Cl-) • Lead (IV) chloride

    28. Time for some PRACTICE!!

    29. Writing Chemical Formulas Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds

    30. Writing formulas for Ionic Compounds • Suppose you need to determine the formula unit of the compound that contains both sodium and chloride ions. • First, write the symbol and charge for each ion Na+Cl- • The ratio of ions must be such that the sum of positive ions must equal the sum of the negative ions  the sum of the oxidation numbers must be zero. • Since Na is +1 and Cl is -1, these two must be in a one-to-one ratio  NaCl

    31. Let’s Simplify the Process • Crossing over charges can be used to write formulas if you know the two charges… • Example: K+ and S2- “Cross over charges” – superscripts become subscripts on opposite ion and lose the +/- K+1 S2- K2S1 but is written K2S because you do not write the subscript “1”

    32. Try writing these formulas… • Lithium chloride • Magnesium fluoride • Potassium oxide • Lead (II) Chloride

    33. Try writing these formulas… • Lithium chloride • LiCl • Magnesium fluoride • MgF2 • Potassium oxide • K2O • Lead (II) chloride • PbCl2

    34. A note about subscript ratios • After crossing over charges, you must reduce the subscripts down to the lowest common ratio! • Example: Magnesium Oxide Mg2+ O2- Mg2O2 Reduce down to MgO Because the 2:2 ratio reduces to 1:1

    35. Writing formulas withPolyatomic Ions • Put the polyatomic ion in parentheses • DO NOT CHANGE ANY PART OF THE POLYATOMIC ION • Cross-over charges outside the parentheses • Example: ammonium oxide (NH4)+ O2- (NH4)2O

    36. Try a few… • Magnesium Sulfate • Calcium Hydroxide • Sodium nitrate

    37. Try a few… • Magnesium Sulfate • MgSO4 • Calcium Hydroxide • Ca(OH)2 • Sodium nitrate • NaNO3

    38. Finally, something easier…Formulas for covalent compounds • Use the prefixes to identify the subscripts • Example: carbon dioxide has 1 carbon and 2 oxygens So, it would be written as CO2

    39. Try these last ones… • Triphosphorus Pentachloride • Dinitrogen Trioxide • Carbon dioxide • Dihydrogen monosulfide

    40. Try these last ones… • Triphosphorus Pentachloride • P3Cl5 • Dinitrogen Trioxide • N2O3 • Carbon dioxide • CO2 • Dihydrogen monosulfide • H2S

    41. Yippee!! That’s all for nomenclature!!