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The 1960s. The Social, Political, Economic, Environmental, Cultural, Historical Significance of the Sixties S.P.E.E.C.H. New Jersey State Standards: . Postwar Years (1945-1970s).

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The 1960s
The 1960s

The Social, Political, Economic, Environmental, Cultural, Historical Significance of the Sixties

S.P.E.E.C.H.


New jersey state standards postwar years 1945 1970s
New Jersey State Standards:. Postwar Years (1945-1970s)

  • Analyze United States foreign policy during the Cold War period, including US/USSR relations, United States reaction to the Soviet subjugation of Eastern Europe, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and relations with China.

  • Analyze political trends in post war America, including major United States Supreme Court decisions and the administrations of Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson.

  • Analyze the Civil Rights and Women's Movements, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Civil Rights Act (1957 and 1964), the Little Rock Schools Crisis, the Voting Rights Act, Brown v. Board of Education, the formation of the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the American Indian Movement (AIM), the formation of the National Organization for Women (NOW), and the passing of Title IX.



Changing times
Changing Times

The American Revolution, Constitution period, War of 1812, Mexican War, Civil War, World War I, Great Depression, World War II, 1960s, and the New Economy of the 80s


The sixties
The Sixties

Popular Culture, Counter Culture, Social Revolution, Swinging Sixties, New Right, New Left, Anti-war Movement, Civil Rights,

Women’s Movement, Summer of Love


Facts about this decade
Facts about this decade 

Population 177,830,000

Unemployment 3,852,000

National Debt 286.3 Billion

Average Salary $4,743

Teacher's Salary $5,174

Average Minimum Wage $1.00

Life Expectancy:  Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years

Auto deaths 21.3 per 100,000


The sixties counterculture
The Sixties: Counterculture

Sociological term used to describe the values and behaviors of a cultural group, or subgroup that run counter to the social mainstream.

In the United States, the term became popular in the 1960s to refer to the social revolution that swept through the nation.


The sixties counterculture1
The Sixties: Counterculture

The counterculture of the 1960s included young people’s rejection of:

Conventional social norms

Political segregation

Vietnam War


The sixties counterculture2
The Sixties: Counterculture

Members of the counterculture were predominately white upper middle class youth.

They were the first group of young people who had sufficient leisure time to raise concerns about social issues.

Civil Rights, Vietnam War, Women’s Rights, Sexual Liberation, Drug use


The sixties counterculture3
The Sixties: Counterculture

The Generation Gap

As the Sixties progressed tensions developed along generational lines.

Vietnam War

Race relations

Sex

Drug use

Authority

Materialistic view of the American Dream

Over 30


The sixties counterculture4
The Sixties: Counterculture

Students for a Democratic Society, SDS

The Port Huron Statement

June 15, 1962, written by Tom Hayden

… a manifesto by the SDS that attacked racial bigotry, poverty, nuclear weapons, etc.

It was also an attack on Pres. Kennedy’s foreign policy

Unofficial response to the Sharon Statement



The vietnam war
The Vietnam War

Dien Bien Phu, 1954

Geneva Peace Conference, Geneva Accords

17th Parallel:

North: Democratic Republic of Vietnam

Ho Chi Ming

South: The Republic of Vietnam

Ngo Dinh Diem


The vietnam war1
The Vietnam War

Fighting between the North and South

The United States aided the South

Vietcong

Gulf of Tonkin incident

Domino Theory

US vs. Soviet Union and Communist China


The vietnam war2
The Vietnam War

Public Opinion

Tet Offensive

My Lai Massacre

Major Colin Powell

Conscientious Objector


The sixties anti war movement
The Sixties: Anti-war movement

The anti-war movement rose out of the 1950s peace movement

1965 bombing of North Vietnam

The draft

Universities became the focal point but the movement had become broad based

Teach-ins, Sit-ins

Kent State shootings




The sixties anti war movement3
The Sixties: Anti-war movement

Kent State Shootings: May 4, 1970


Assassinations
Assassinations

Medgar Evers

John F Kennedy

Malcolm X

Martin Luther King

Robert Kennedy




Race riots
Race Riots

1964

New York City, New York - July

Philadelphia 1964 race riot; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - August

1965

Watts Riot; Los Angeles, California - August

1966

Cleveland, Ohio - July

San Francisco

Chicago Race Riot -January

1967

Newark, New Jersey - July

Detroit, Michigan - July

Milwaukee, Wisconsin - July 30-31

Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota - August

1968

Baltimore riot of 1968; Baltimore Maryland

Washington, D.C. riots; Washington, D.C.

New York City, New York


The sixties feminist movement
The Sixties: Feminist Movement

Presidential Commission on the Status of Women

Equal Pay Act of 1963

The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan

NOW: National Organization for Women

“ full and equal partnership with men”



The sixties new left
The Sixties: New Left

C. Wright Mills

Counterculture

Establishment/Anti-establishment

Students for a Democratic Society

Noam Chomsky, Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin


The new right
The New Right

Silent Majority

Most youth in the Sixties were not counter culture.

Conservative Concerns:

Affirmative Action, busing, anti war demonstrations, big gover’t and taxes

The election of 1968

Conservative religious right


The sixties popular culture
The Sixties: Popular Culture

Youth and sex

Beatniks to hippies

Recreational drug use

Artistic and spiritual epiphany

….. addictions and deaths


The sixties legacy
The Sixties: Legacy

Conservative Views

Congressman Dick Armey “everything bad comes from the 1960s.”

End of bipartisanship in foreign policy

Vietnam Syndrome

Traditional family values lost

“poverty of values”

Pres. Johnson’s “Great Society” failed


The sixties legacy1
The Sixties: Legacy

Liberal Views

Political Activism

Equal Rights: 1964, 1965

“culture of excess”

Vietnam Syndrome

Pres. Johnson’s “Great Society”

More inclusive and tolerant society


The sixties1
The Sixties

Both Conservatives and Liberals agree:

The Sixties influence still felt today

Novelist William Faulkner:

“ the past is not dead. It’s not even past”.


The sixties music
The Sixties: Music

Changes in popular music: Doo Wop to Rock and Roll

Elvis, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Little Richard

Singer song writers: Bob Dylan, Lennon-McCarthy, Brian Wilson

Social implications: music and the musicians

lifestyles, fashions, attitudes, and language

Motown, British Invasion, Surf Sound, Acid Rock






The sixties music3
The Sixties: Music

Social implications

Music and the musicians

rock music influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language

It appealed to the baby boomer generation



The sixties references
The Sixties: References

Neale, Jonathan, The American War

Brian Longhurst, Popular music and society

Paul Lyons, New Left, New Right, and the Legacy of the Sixties

James Farrell, The Spirit of the Sixties

Michael W. Flamm, David Steigerwald, Debating the 1960s