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Youth Depression. Lorna Martin lormartin@gov.mb.ca. General Symptoms of Youth Depression. A feeling of sadness and hopelessness (belief that there’s no way to stop feeling stressed out and sad) Moodiness (irritability, feelings of anger and sadness for weeks at a time)

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youth depression

Youth Depression

Lorna Martin

lormartin@gov.mb.ca

general symptoms of youth depression
General Symptoms of Youth Depression
  • A feeling of sadness and hopelessness (belief that there’s no way to stop feeling stressed out and sad)
  • Moodiness (irritability, feelings of anger and sadness for weeks at a time)
  • Eating disturbances (eating either too much of too little)
  • Sleep disturbances (nightmares, insomnia, hypersomnia)
  • Changes in social life (depressed teenagers stop spending time with their friends. They often refuse phone calls)
general symptoms of youth depression3
General Symptoms of YouthDepression
  • Chemical abuse (depressed teenagers attempt to relieve depression, but often the result is addiction. What they don’t realize is that alcohol and drugs are depressants, not mood elevators, and their depression worsens)
  • Loss of interest in pleasurable activities (finding no pleasure in activities they used to enjoy, such as going to movies or concerts, reading, watching TV, listening to music or sports. As well as no involvement in new activities)

adapted fromwww.counsellor.com.au/depression.html

school related symptoms of youth depression
School-related Symptoms of YouthDepression
  • Poor performance in school, truancy, tardiness
  • Withdrawal from school activities/peer groups
  • Lack of enthusiasm, energy or motivation
  • Globalized anger and rage
  • Overreaction to criticism, increased self-criticism
  • Indecision, lack of concentration or forgetfulness
  • Restlessness and agitation
  • Problems with authority
  • Suicidal thoughts or actions (e.g., cleaning out locker, giving away items)
a few more reasons for depression
A Few More Reasons for Depression
  • Fear of failure
  • social rejection
  • bodily sickness
  • bullying or abuse
  • childhood memories
  • thoughts of a better life
  • separation with family
  • worries about the future
a few more reasons for depression6
A Few More Reasons for Depression
  • alcohol/substance/drug abuse
  • pointless work done
  • teasing or low self opinion because of body, accent, clothing
  • imperfection of the work as a whole, as in negative comments from family, friends or peers

excerpted fromwww.counsellor.com.au/depression.html

why we misdiagnose youth depression the pathology of puberty
Why we misdiagnose youth depression: The Pathology of Puberty
  • Variable performance in school
  • Withdrawal from family, change in peers
  • Lack of motivation, change in sleep patterns
  • Globalized anger and rage, giddiness
  • Overreaction to criticism, increased self-criticism
  • Indecision, lack of concentration or forgetfulness
  • Restlessness and agitation
  • Problems with authority
depression suicide and school violence
Depression, Suicide and School Violence

Students experiencing depression and related emotional reactions are often alienated at school, are insecure, and lack the resources to adequately cope with the many daily challenges they face, both at home and at school

(Lewinsohn, Rohde, & Seeley, 1993)

the web of behaviour
The Web of Behaviour

Emerging

Peers

Siblings

Strengths

developmentally

Families and friends

socially

Yet to develop

student

Self regulating skills

academically

Consistency between home and school

Attitudes toward school

Work habits

performance

Expectations for Behaviour

Responsibilities

treating youth depression
Treating Youth Depression
  • Psychotherapy - explore events and feelings that are painful or troubling; learn coping skills
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy - challenges negative thinking and behaving patterns
  • Interpersonal therapy - focuses on developing healthier relationships at home and school
  • Medication - relieves some symptoms of depression and is often prescribed with therapy
depression vs discouragement
Depression vs. Discouragement

When assessment reveals no clinical depression, yet outward symptoms suggest depression is present:

  • Check the environment: at home, at school, with/out peers
  • Check for an underlying incident (historic, present, or upcoming)
  • Check for suicidal ideation
the concept of the circle the balanced self
The Concept of the Circle (the balanced self)

GENEROSITY

INDEPEN-DENCE

BELONGING

MASTERY

mending the broken circle
Mending the Broken Circle

“Discouraged children show their conflict and despair in obvious ways, or they disguise their real feelings with acts of pseudo-courage. The effective teacher or therapist or youth worker learns to read beneath these behaviours.”

Brendtro, Brokenleg, Van Bockern, 1990

mending the broken circle14
Mending the Broken Circle
  • Is this revenge by a child who feels rejection?
  • Is this frustration in response to failure?
  • Is this rebellion to counter powerlessness?
  • Is this exploitation in pursuit of selfish goals?
  • Is this withdrawal in response to abuse, a threat or depression?
mending the broken circle15
Mending the Broken Circle

“One cannot mend the circle of courage without understanding where it is broken.”

Brendtro, Brokenleg, Van Bockern, 1990

mending the broken circle16

belonging

belonging

Mending the Broken Circle
  • NEEDS
    • corrective relationships of trust and intimacy
  • NORMAL
    • attached
    • loving
    • friendly
    • intimate
    • gregarious
    • cooperative
    • trusting
  • DISTORTED
    • gang loyalty
    • craves affection
    • craves acceptance
    • promiscuous
    • clinging
    • cult vulnerable
    • overly dependent
  • ABSENT
    • unattached
    • guarded
    • rejected
    • lonely
    • aloof
    • isolated
    • distrustful
mending the broken circle17

mastery

Mending the Broken Circle
  • NEEDS
    • involvement in an environment with abundant opportunities for meaningful achievement

mastery

  • NORMAL
    • achiever
    • successful
    • creative
    • problem-solver
    • motivated
    • persistent
    • competent
  • DISTORTED
    • overachiever
    • arrogant
    • risk seeker
    • cheater
    • workaholic
    • perseverative
    • delinquent skills
  • ABSENT
    • nonachiever
    • failure oriented
    • avoids risks
    • fears challenges
    • unmotivated
    • gives up easily
    • inadequate
mending the broken circle18

independence

independence

Mending the Broken Circle
  • NEEDS
    • opportunities to develop the skills and the confidence to assert positive leadership and self-discipline
  • NORMAL
    • autonomous
    • confident
    • assertive
    • responsible
    • inner control
    • self-discipline
    • leadership
  • DISTORTED
    • dictatorial
    • reckless/macho
    • bullies others
    • sexual prowess
    • manipulative
    • rebellious
    • defies authority
  • ABSENT
    • submissive
    • lacks confidence
    • inferiority
    • irresponsible
    • helplessness
    • undisciplined
    • easily led
mending the broken circle19
Mending the Broken Circle
  • NEEDS
    • experience the joys that accrue from helping others

generosity

generosity

  • NORMAL
    • altruistic
    • caring
    • sharing
    • loyal
    • empathic
    • pro-social
    • supportive
  • DISTORTED
    • noblesse oblige
    • overinvolved
    • plays martyr
    • co-dependency
    • servitude
    • bondage
  • ABSENT
    • selfish
    • affectionless
    • narcissistic
    • disloyal
    • hardened
    • anti-social
    • exploitative
slide21

The Crisis Cube

HIGH

STRESS

Continuing growth

EFFECTIVE

MORE EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING

Pre-crisis behaviour

Adequate coping

Line of Stability

CRISIS ONSET POINT

Pre-crisis behaviour

Use of resources

Point of intervention

MOUNTING STRESS

LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING

LOW

Continued fragmentation

deterioration

maladaptive behaviour

Need for psychotherapy

years, lifetime

INEFFECTIVE

LOW

days, months, years

seconds, minutes

days, months

TIME

Greenstone & Leviton, 1993

understanding behaviour
Understanding Behaviour
  • Behaviour may be an expression of an underlying condition
  • Behaviour often has a purpose
  • Behaviour is the response of an individual to the environment, either external or internal
  • Many behaviours are learned and, therefore, can be changed
  • Behaviour difficulties can be viewed as a learning opportunity for us (about the child) and for the student (about their community and themselves)
  • Problem behaviour may be maintained by the environment
  • Behaviour may be a way of communicating
  • Survival strategies learned early in life may not be functional in later life
slide23

Assisting Students in the Development of Resiliency Skills

  • Developing supporting relationships with students
  • Maintaining positive and high, but appropriate expectations for all students
  • Providing opportunities for children to participate and contribute
  • Providing growth opportunities for students
slide24

Assisting Students in the Development of Resiliency Skills (cont’d)

  • Ensuring all students have a caring adult in their lives(mentoring)
  • Teaching students they are capable and have strengths
  • Providing opportunities for self-assessment and self-reflection
  • Providing opportunities to work with other students (cooperative learning)
slide25

Assisting Students - Re-entry Postvention

  • Debriefing - involves a teacher, administrator, counsellor, or clinician reviewing a major incident with a child. Review the incident, discuss emotions, and supports in place to smooth re-entry.
  • Planning for re-entry -involves a teacher, administration, teacher, and students upon the the student’s return to school.
  • Building bridges- involves ‘building bridges’ for success between teacher and student after a major incident -- often a contingency plan for minor setbacks and a plan for immediate intervention