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HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. By: Ms Syazwani Mahmad Puzi. What is Literature Review?. A collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers

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  2. What is Literature Review? • A collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic • A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers • Literature is about telling a story where each writer starts with a partial story created previously by others and expand on it. The existing literature is the story so far. • Literature review is an interpretation and synthesis of published work

  3. Four Main Reasons for Reviewing the Literature 1. Focus on previous research -provide an overview and critical appraisal of past & current thinking, ideas, policies and practices 2. Shows how you study the ‘gap’ -provide a basis upon which to make critical decisions regarding the directions of a research

  4. 3. The necessity and rationale of your study -does it make sense? Why it is important? How is it different? How it is novel? Is it justifiable? 4. Set boundaries of your study -determine the scope & specific objective (not the sky is the limit!) 5. Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective

  5. The range of literature to explore • Background material which is of broadly relevance to your study • Literature and research studies which adress issues that are closedly related to your study • Literature which is directly related to your study

  6. Searching & Reading Strategy

  7. Analyzing & Digesting The Literature • Note taking • Summarizing the key findings • Extracting critical facts/arguments • Examine evidence • Understand interpretation

  8. Reading Critically & Analytically • Things to extract from each piece of reading material -definitions, problem, theory, hypothesis, techniques, interpretations, concepts, arguments, standpoint, evidence, perspective, styles, justification, ways of thinking, conclusions

  9. Skill for Digesting The Literature

  10. Components of Literature Review • Background information -introduce topic -describe scope & organization -review past & present literature -clarify purpose

  11. Critical appraisal/synthesis -not just a list of the work of others -identify issues highlighted -highlight differences and similarities -Identify consensus -integrate keypoints and make appropriate inferences

  12. GENERAL TIPS • The first section of Chapter 2 generally indicates how the chapter is organized and explains the subsections that comprise the chapter. = 1st paragraph • For example, • Chapter 2 provides an extensive review of the literature and research related to principal selection.

  13. The chapter will be divided into sections that include • history of the principal/problem, • importance of the principal, • current selection practices, • Methodology • Process • procedure • recommended selection practices.

  14. As Chapter 2 may be lengthy, it is essential to divide the chapter into as many sections and subsections as needed to logically organize the information presented. (Note: Each section and subsection heading must be properly listed in the Table of Contents)

  15. CITATIONS • As Chapter 2 presents information and conclusions drawn by other researchers, citations should be used extensively throughout the chapter. • Although you are presenting information from other researchers and writers, avoid overuse of direct quotations. • Including many direct quotations produces a literature review that usually lacks transitions and flow, and is difficult to read.

  16. Direct quotations, indirect quotations or paraphrasing, as well as any information attributable to other researchers and individuals - require citations.

  17. SUMMARY • Generally, Chapter 2 ends with a short summary of the information presented in the chapter. • Several paragraphs that highlight the most relevant information from the review of literature are usually sufficient.

  18. References Style 1. Book :Author Name(s), Author Sir Name(s), (Year). Title, Edition number, Publisher, Location: Example: Holmlund, C. (1969). Fried, Avionic Navigation Systems, 1st edition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA 2. Conference Proceedings : Author(s), (Year). Article title, Name of conference, Location of conference, Pages. Example: Dore S.D., and Kershenbaum, L.S. (1994). Application of geometric nonlinear control in the process industries – a case study, Proc. IFAC Symposium, ADCHEM ‘94, Kyoto, Japan, pp 501-506. 3. Journal Paper : Author(s), (Year). Article title, Name of journal , Volume number, Pages. Example : Finkelstein M, (2006). Microfluids: Cliks and Chips, Journal of Nature, Vol 422, pp.245-256. 4. Electronic sources: • Web pages- Author(s) or Company, (Year), Title, URL, date found. Example : Vice President, 1999. University of Calgary Research Policies and Procedures Handbook. http://www.ovpr.uga.edu/rpph/rph_misn.html. Accessed on 23 February 1999. • Graphics from Encarta (or similar) needs to be referenced. Note: Read the FYP referencing guide.

  19. Thank you…

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