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HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. By: Ms Syazwani Mahmad Puzi. What is Literature Review?. A collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers
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HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW By: Ms SyazwaniMahmadPuzi
What is Literature Review? • A collection of all the scholarly writings on a topic • A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers • Literature is about telling a story where each writer starts with a partial story created previously by others and expand on it. The existing literature is the story so far. • Literature review is an interpretation and synthesis of published work
Four Main Reasons for Reviewing the Literature 1. Focus on previous research -provide an overview and critical appraisal of past & current thinking, ideas, policies and practices 2. Shows how you study the ‘gap’ -provide a basis upon which to make critical decisions regarding the directions of a research
3. The necessity and rationale of your study -does it make sense? Why it is important? How is it different? How it is novel? Is it justifiable? 4. Set boundaries of your study -determine the scope & specific objective (not the sky is the limit!) 5. Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective
The range of literature to explore • Background material which is of broadly relevance to your study • Literature and research studies which adress issues that are closedly related to your study • Literature which is directly related to your study
Analyzing & Digesting The Literature • Note taking • Summarizing the key findings • Extracting critical facts/arguments • Examine evidence • Understand interpretation
Reading Critically & Analytically • Things to extract from each piece of reading material -definitions, problem, theory, hypothesis, techniques, interpretations, concepts, arguments, standpoint, evidence, perspective, styles, justification, ways of thinking, conclusions
Components of Literature Review • Background information -introduce topic -describe scope & organization -review past & present literature -clarify purpose
Critical appraisal/synthesis -not just a list of the work of others -identify issues highlighted -highlight differences and similarities -Identify consensus -integrate keypoints and make appropriate inferences
GENERAL TIPS • The first section of Chapter 2 generally indicates how the chapter is organized and explains the subsections that comprise the chapter. = 1st paragraph • For example, • Chapter 2 provides an extensive review of the literature and research related to principal selection.
The chapter will be divided into sections that include • history of the principal/problem, • importance of the principal, • current selection practices, • Methodology • Process • procedure • recommended selection practices.
As Chapter 2 may be lengthy, it is essential to divide the chapter into as many sections and subsections as needed to logically organize the information presented. (Note: Each section and subsection heading must be properly listed in the Table of Contents)
CITATIONS • As Chapter 2 presents information and conclusions drawn by other researchers, citations should be used extensively throughout the chapter. • Although you are presenting information from other researchers and writers, avoid overuse of direct quotations. • Including many direct quotations produces a literature review that usually lacks transitions and flow, and is difficult to read.
Direct quotations, indirect quotations or paraphrasing, as well as any information attributable to other researchers and individuals - require citations.
SUMMARY • Generally, Chapter 2 ends with a short summary of the information presented in the chapter. • Several paragraphs that highlight the most relevant information from the review of literature are usually sufficient.
References Style 1. Book :Author Name(s), Author Sir Name(s), (Year). Title, Edition number, Publisher, Location: Example: Holmlund, C. (1969). Fried, Avionic Navigation Systems, 1st edition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA 2. Conference Proceedings : Author(s), (Year). Article title, Name of conference, Location of conference, Pages. Example: Dore S.D., and Kershenbaum, L.S. (1994). Application of geometric nonlinear control in the process industries – a case study, Proc. IFAC Symposium, ADCHEM ‘94, Kyoto, Japan, pp 501-506. 3. Journal Paper : Author(s), (Year). Article title, Name of journal , Volume number, Pages. Example : Finkelstein M, (2006). Microfluids: Cliks and Chips, Journal of Nature, Vol 422, pp.245-256. 4. Electronic sources: • Web pages- Author(s) or Company, (Year), Title, URL, date found. Example : Vice President, 1999. University of Calgary Research Policies and Procedures Handbook. http://www.ovpr.uga.edu/rpph/rph_misn.html. Accessed on 23 February 1999. • Graphics from Encarta (or similar) needs to be referenced. Note: Read the FYP referencing guide.