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How to Appreciate Fiction. 1.Stylistic features of realist/readerly texts: a.the omniscient narrator--while telling the story, comments on and makes judgments about the events and the characters by various devices of speech or thought presentation as follows :

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how to appreciate fiction

How to Appreciate Fiction

1.Stylistic features of realist/readerly texts:

a.the omniscient narrator--while telling the story,

comments on and makes judgments about the

events and the characters by various devices of

speech or thought presentation as follows:

He said, ‘I’ll come back here to see you again

tomorrow.’(classic realism) DS

He said that he would return there to see her

the following day.(classic realism) IS

‘I’ll come back here to see you again …’ FDS

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He said, I’ll come back here to see you again tomorrow. FDSI’ll come back here to see you again tomorrow, he said. FDS‘I’ll come back here to see you again …’ FDSHe would return there to see her again the following day. FIS He would return there to see her again the following day, he said. FISHe promised to visit her again the following day. NRSAHe wondered about her love for him. NRTA

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He wondered, ‘Does she still love me?’DTDoes she still love me?FDT He wondered if she still loved him. ITDid she still love him? FITSequence of grades of ‘interference’ in reportNarrator Narrator Narrator in total in partial not in controlcontrol control of reportof report of report at allVarieties of speech presentationNRA NRSA IS FIS DS FDS

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The effects and uses of FIS: irony is produced as FIS is normally viewed as a form to interpose the authorial voice between the reader and what the character says, so that the reader is distanced from the character’s words; DS is assumed as the norm for the portrayal of speech and IT for thought: NRSA IS FIS DS FDS Norm NRTA IT FIT DT FDT NormBoth modes can be distinguished by features from levels of grammar, lexis, and graphology

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1) She would not have asked Mr. Casaubon at once to teach her the languages, dreading of all things to be tiresome instead of helpful; but it was not entirely out of devotion to her future husband that she wished to know Latin and Greek. Those provinces of masculine knowledge seemed to her a standing-ground from which all truth could be seen more truly. As it was, she constantly doubted her own conclusions, because she felt her own ignorance: how could she be confident that one-roomed cottages were not for the glory of God, when men who knew the classics appeared to conciliate in-difference to the cottages with zeal for the glory?
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Perhaps even Hebrew might be necessary—at least the alphabet and a few roots—in order to arrive at the core of things, and judge soundly on the social duties of the Christian. And she had not reached that point of renunciation at which she would have been satisfied with having a wise husband; she wished, poor child, to be wise herself. Miss Brooke was certainly very naïve with all alleged cleverness. Celia, whose mind had never been thought too powerful, saw the emptiness of other people’s pre-tensions much more readily. To have in general but little feeling, seems to be the only security against feeling too much on any particular occasion.
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2)Evidently that gate is never opened; for the long grass and the great hemlocks grow against it; and if it were opened, it is so rusty that the force necessary to turn it on its hinges would be like-ly to pull down the square stone built pillars, to the detriment of the two stone lionesses which grin with a doubtful carnivorous affability above a coat of arms, surmounting each of the pillars. It would be easy enough, by the aid of the nicks in the stone pillars, to climb over the brick wall with its smooth stone coping; but by putting our eyes close to the rusty bars of the gate, we can
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see the house well enough, and all by the very corners of the grassy enclosure. It is a very fine old place, of red brick, softened by a pale powdery lichen, which has dispersed itself with happy irregularity, so as to bring the red brick into terms of friendly companionship with the limestone ornaments surrounding the three gables, the windows, and the door-place. But the windows are patched with wooden panes, and the door, I think, is like the gate—it is never opened: how it would groan and grate against the stone floor if it were!
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3)It was in the time that the earth begins to put on her new apparel against the approach of her lover, and that the sun, running a most even course, becomes an indifferent arbiter between the night and the day, when the hopeless shepherd Strephon was viewing the place with a heavy kind of delight, and sometimes casting his eyes to the isleward, he called his friendly rival, the pastor Claus, unto him; and setting first down in his darkened countenance a doleful copy of what he would speak, (the following is the monologue)

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“O my Claus,” said he, “hither we are now come to pay the rend for which we are so called unto by over- busy remembrance—remembrance, restless remembrance, which claims not only this duty of us but for it will have us forget ourselves. Did remembrance grant us any holiday either for pastime or devotion—nay either for necessary food or natural rest—but that still it forced our thoughts to work upon this place where we last (alas, that the word last should so long last) did graze our eyes upon her ever- flourishing beauty?”

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4)She had settled down in the fireside chair, her hair thrown back against the headrest, both legs splayed wide. Dalgliesh pulled out one of the wheel-backed chairs and sat facing her.“Did you know Father Baddley well?”“We all know each other well here, that’s half our trouble. Are you thinking of staying here?”“In the district perhaps for a day or two. But it doesn’t seem possible now to stay here…”“I don’t see why not if you want to. The place is empty, at least until Wilfred finds another victim—

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tenant, I should say. I shouldn’t think that he’d object. Besides you’ll have to sort out the books won’t you? Wilfred will want them out of the way before the next incumbent moves in.”“Wilfred Anstey owns this cottage then?” “He owns Toynton Grange and all the cottages except Julius Court’s. He’s further out on the headland, the only one with a sea view. Wilfred owns all the rest of the property and he owns us.”(free direct speech; with the effect of speeding up the pace of exchange of words)

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5)“Blue” the young priest said earnestly. “All available evidence, my daughter, suggests that Our Lord Christ Jesus was the most beauteous, crystal shade of pale sky blue.” The little woman behind the wooden latticed window of the confessional fell silent for a moment. An anxious, cogitating silence. Then: “But how, Father? People are not blue. No people are blue in the whole big world!” Bewilderment of the little woman, matched by perplexity of the priest…because this is not how she’s supposed to react. The Bishop had said,

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“Problems with recent converts…when they ask about color they’re almost always that… import-ant to build bridges, my son. Remember,” thus spake the Bishop, “God is love; and the Hindu love-god Krishna is always depicted with blue skin. Tell them blue; it will be a sort of bridge between the faiths; gently does it, you follow; and besides blue is a neutral sort of color, avoids the usual color problems, gets you away from black and white: yes, on the whole I’m sure it’s the one to choose.”(free direct thought; fictional point of view)

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6)Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress. Her hand and wrist were so finely formed that she could wear sleeves not less bare of style than those in which the Blessed Virgin appeared to Italian painters; and her profile as well as her stature and bearing seemed to gain the more dignity from her plain garments, which by the side of provincial fashion gave her the impressiveness of a fine quotation from the Bible,--or from one of our elder poets,--in a paragraph of today’s newspaper. She was usually spoken of as being remarkably clever, but with the addition that her sister Celia had more common-sense. (present time markers)

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7)One evening of late summer, before the nine-teenth century had reached one third of its span, a young man and woman, the latter carrying a child, were approaching the large village of Weydon Priors, in Upper Wessex, on foot. They were plainly but not ill clad, though the thick hoar of dust which had accumulated on their shoes and garments from an obviously long journey lent a disadvantageous shabbiness to their appearance just now.(one more case of the use of time marker to draw the readers to share in the scene)

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b.detailed painting of the realistic surroundings; c.specific reference to a given time by time marker, tense or personal pronoun or possessive form. 2.Modernism in art in the 20th century, as a reaction to realism, features abstraction (art that does not imitate the appearance of things), the introduction of new artistic techniques and materials, and the subjective, ambiguous visual or auditory effects.3.Stylistic features of modernist textsa.language as a substance in its own right; (P170) 1.Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming along the road and this moocow that was coming along the road met

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a nicenslittle boy named baby tuckoo… His father told him that story: his father looked at him through a glass: he had a hairy face. He was baby tuckoo. The moocow came down the road where Betty Byrne lived: she sold lemon platt. O, the wild rose blossoms On the little green place. He sang that song. That was his song.(simple syntax, simple lexis and simple view as a copy of the simple mind of a child)b.narrative-dialogue discourse boundary is blurred with ‘stream of consciousness’: (P171)

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1.If this ever-active, ever-mischievous monkey of a man, this Lovelace, contrived as you suspect—But here comes my mother again(1).—Ay, stay a little longer, my manna, if you please (2). I can but be suspected! (3). I can but be chidden for making you wait (4); and chidden I am sure to be, whether I do or not, in the way you, my good manna, are Antony’d into (5). Bless me! – how impatient she is! – how she thunders at the door! (6). This moment, madam (7). How came I to double-lock myself in! What have I done with the key? (8). Deuce take the key! (9). Dear madam! You flutter one so! (10). [Psychoanalysis]

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2.A kidney oozed bloodgouts on the willowpattern-ed dish: the last(1). He stood by the nextdoor girl at the counter(2).Would she buy it too, calling the items from a slip in her hand (3)Chapped: wash-ing soda (4). And a pound and a half of Denny’s sausages(5). His eyes rested on her vigorous hips (6).Woods his name is (7). Wonder what he does (8). Wife is oldish (9). New blood(10). No follow-ers allowed (11). [Psychoanalysis] c.collage:as in art, use of allusions to other literary works as a way to explore 20th-century life and meanings related to previous Western cultures.

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d.juxtapose high and low cultural forms to stress the difference in value of the two cultures. 4.Stylistic features of postmodernist texts:(P174-79) a.with anarchic disrespect for tradition and status aiming at the end of cultural hierarchy; b.emphasis on language form more than content; c.loss of narrative closure; d.parody:imitates other works in order to mock it; pastiche:a process of mixing styles or imitating styles of other’s work for humorous effect;(P176) e.stress on nature of texts, ignoring the world out- side the text; (P178) filled with irony and humor.