Descriptive Statistics. What a Data Set Tells Us. 15.1 Organizing and Visualizing Data Objectives:. Understand the difference between a sample and a population. Organize data in a frequency table. Use a variety of methods to represent data visually.
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What a Data Set Tells Us
We show the percent of the time that each item occurs in a frequency distribution using a relative frequency distribution.
We often present a frequency distribution as a frequency table where we list the values in one column and the frequencies of the values in another column.
Example: 25 viewers evaluated the latest episode of CSI. The possible evaluations are
(E)xcellent, (A)bove average, a(V)erage, (B)elow average, (P)oor.
After the show, the 25 evaluations were as follows:
A, V, V, B, P, E, A, E, V, V, A, E, P, B, V, V, A, A, A, E, B, V, A, B, V
Construct a frequency table and a relative frequency table for this list of evaluations.
Solution: We organize the data in the frequency table shown below.
We construct a relative frequency distribution for these data by dividing each frequency in the table by 25. For example, the relative frequency
of E is .
Example: Suppose 40 health care workers take an AIDS awareness test and earn the following scores:
79, 62, 87, 84, 53, 76, 67, 73, 82, 68,
82, 79, 61, 51, 66, 77, 78, 66, 86, 70,
76, 64, 87, 82, 61, 59, 77, 88, 80, 58,
56, 64, 83, 71, 74, 79, 67, 79, 84, 68
Construct a frequency table and a relative frequency table for these data.
Solution: Because there are so many different scores in this list, the data is grouped in ranges.
To get the relative frequency, we divide each count in the frequency column by 40. For example, in the row labeled 55–59, we divide 3 by 40 to get 0.075 in the third column.
Example: Draw a bar graph of the frequency distribution of viewers’ responses to an episode of CSI.
Example: Draw a bar graph of the relative frequency distribution of viewers’ responses to an episode of CSI.
Example: A clinic has the following data regarding the weight lost by its clients over the past 6 months. Draw a histogram for the relative frequency distribution for these data.
Solution: We first find the relative frequency distribution.
We draw the histogram exactly like a bar graph except that we do not allow spaces between the bars.
Example: The bar graph shows the number of Atlantic hurricanes over a period of years.
What was the smallest number of hurricanes in a year during this period? ___
b) What was the largest? ___
What number of hurricanes per year occurred most frequently? ___
How many years were the hurricanes counted? ___
In what percentage of the years were there more than 10 hurricanes? ___
In constructing a stem-and- leaf display, we view each number as having two parts. The left digit is considered the stem and the right digit the leaf.
For example, 38 has a stem of 3 and a leaf of 8.
Example: The following are the number of home runs hit by the home run champions in the National League for the years 1975 to 1989 and for 1993 to 2007.
Compare these home run records using a stem-and-leaf display.
1975 to 1989 1993 to 2007
5 | 2 represents 52 home runs 7 | 3 represents 73 home runs
We can compare these data sets by placing these two displays side by side as shown below. Some call this display a back-to-back stem-and-leaf display.
This comparison makes it clear that the home run champions hit significantly more home runs from 1993 to 2007 than from 1975 to 1989.