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Behavioural Change
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  1. Behavioural Change

  2. Smarter Choices: changing the way we travel Research for DfT by Sally Cairns & Phil Goodwin (UCL) Lynn Sloman & Carey Newson (Transport for Quality of Life) Jillian Anable (Robert Gordon University) Alistair Kirkbride (Eco-Logica)

  3. What are Smart Choices? • techniques for influencing travel behaviour towards more sustainable options • sometimes called ‘soft’ measures • more psychology than engineering • engage with people about their travel choices • may involve: • better information about existing travel options • marketing and communication • new transport services, closely focussed on target market • carrots and sticks, working together

  4. The Smart Choice measures we looked at • Workplace travel plans • School travel plans • Personalised travel planning • Public transport information and marketing • Travel awareness campaigns • Car clubs • Car sharing schemes • Teleworking • Teleconferencing • Home shopping

  5. Why are they the smart thing to do? • An intensive Smart Choices Programme could deliver large cuts in traffic • It would have most impact in places where the problems are greatest (urban areas at peak times) • These measures are excellent value for money

  6. By how much could traffic be cut?

  7. How were the traffic impacts estimated? • Based on worldwide literature review and 24 detailed case studies of what is being achieved now by local authorities • Looked at effectiveness of current schemes, and their potential scale in 10 years time • Two scenarios: low intensity and high intensity • High intensity scenario assumes step-change in activity and resources, but within limits of what is practically achievable

  8. Workplace travel plans Case studies: Birmingham, Bristol, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Merseytravel, Nottingham, York

  9. Workplace travel plans Cut in car trips to work (source: Smarter Choices and Making Travel Plans Work)

  10. Workplace travel plans - current scale Future scale: two urban areas estimated 40-50%; one rural area estimated 15%.

  11. Workplace travel plans • Can cut car commuting at individual workplaces by 10 – 25% • Now reaching up to a third of the workforce in some towns • Costs from £2 - £4 a head

  12. Some measures had bigger effect…but all were important national 11% traffic cut

  13. Value for money • Average cost = £15 for each 1000 vehicle km of traffic removed • Average benefit = £150 for each 1000 vehicle km of traffic removed (only taking account of congestion relief, not environmental or social benefits) • Benefit : cost ratio is at least 10:1 • Higher BCRs (up to 30:1) in congested city streets

  14. BUT…. Benefits will only be realised if traffic reduction is accompanied by ‘locking in’ restraint measures

  15. Workplace travel team (covering WTPs, car-sharing, telework) Over-arching travel awareness campaign (unified branding) Smart Choices Programme Partnership with operators to market bus and rail Personalised travel planning School travel plans team Innovative projects – car clubs, home shopping

  16. What would an intensive Smart Choices Programme look like? • Workplace travel plan team • covering WTP, car-sharing, telework, teleconferencing • over 10 years, reach half the workforce • target larger employers first • School travel plan team • over 10 years, cover every school • Personalised travel planning • over 10 years, reach a third of households • target 5-10,000 people per year Smart Choices Programme

  17. Market bus and rail increase ridership by 2-3% per year Over-arching travel awareness campaign Project development: car clubs, home shopping (prepare for next phase) Smart Choices Programme

  18. How much will an intensive Smart Choices Programme cost? • Step-change in priority / resources • Annual revenue spend ~ £5 per citizen to achieve ‘high intensity’ scenario • Capital funding needed too, e.g. safe routes to schools, cycle route networks Smart Choices Programme

  19. Where will the money come from? • New evidence (and glossy Smart Choices guide) will help sell Smart Choices to councillors and senior officers • Potential funding from non-traditional sources e.g. regeneration budgets, health sector • LTP2 encourages bids for combined capital + revenue Smart Choice projects Smart Choices Programme

  20. Guidance on LTP2 ‘the Department would encourage authorities to consider how they might follow the lead of others in exploring how 'revenue-type' transport activity, aimed at maximising the benefits of particular infrastructure projects, could be funded from capital allocations’ (part 4, paragraph 70) Smart Choices Programme

  21. Conclusions…. • Pilot programmes have now proved the effectiveness of individual Smart Choice measures • We have the evidence that they work, and can deliver large cuts in traffic • …But only if they become mainstream • The next stage: large-scale local Smart Choice Programmes

  22. For the main report, go to: then → Sustainable travel then → ‘Smarter choices – Changing the way we travel’

  23. Lynn Sloman Transport for Quality of Life 01654 781358