A History of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland http://www.uk.filo.pl/england.htm. England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland. First inhabitants of the island. small bands of hunters Stone Age: immigrants 4,000 BC Extract chalk
A History of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelandhttp://www.uk.filo.pl/england.htm
England • Wales • Scotland • Northern Ireland
First inhabitants of the island • small bands of hunters • Stone Age: immigrants 4,000 BC Extract chalk Build the mysterious stone circles at Stonehenge and Avebury. • Bronze Age: Celts 800 BC metal works
The Romans • Julius Caesar came in 43 AD • it took him 7 years to control most of England • The northern tribeswere aggressive, so he had to build the Hadrian's Wallto isolate them • The Romans brought stability, paved roads and Christianity • Queen Boudicca fought the Romans (destroyed the 9thLegion, burned the capital), but the Romans were never completely defeated. • The Romans left around 410 AD as their empire declined.
Otherinvaders • Tribes Angles, Jutes and Saxons • Angles : the name England originates from this tribe. Jutesare possibly from the Jutland peninsula (ships). Anglo-Saxon dialects = Old English language. • About one third of Anglo-Saxon vocabulary survived into modern English, including many most basic and daily words. • 7th century: Anglo-Saxon kings organize fortresses and begin to think of themselves as English. • 9th century:Vikings had invaded northern parts and Danes invade the eastern England. • a process of assimilation
The Normans (French) • William of Normandy (William the Conqueror), who arrived in 1066 with a force of 12,000 men. After the Battle of Hastings, he replaced English aristocrats with French-speaking Normans. • For the next 200 years, the language of nobility was French. • The Normans built impressive castles, imposed taxes, counted the population • A constant process of assimilation
Next… • The next centuries saw a series of royal fights, political intrigues, plagues, unrest and revolt. • The Hundred Years War with France: (1337-1453) House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet fought for the French throne. • Valois claimed the title of King of France • Plantagenet claimed the thrones of both France and England (they were already kings in England, even if they came from Normandy). • Valois won, so Plantagenet kept the throne of England.
The War of Roses • The War of the Roses: between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose) for the throne of England. • Lancasterwon: Dynasty of Tudors. • 16th century, KingHenry VIII • handsome, clever • loved sports, music and dancing • verypopularwithhis people Wife (1): Catherine of Aragon (Spain) Daughter (1): Mary
Marriage problems: religious and political solutions • Main problem: no son to inherit the throne • Religion in Britain:Catholic(7th-16th century) • Life expectancy: 50 years(short), people are worried about their life afterdeath(theygive10% to the Church) • Church = more powerfulthan the king • Henry wants to get a divorce • Only the Pope can approve • Pope says no, Henry decides to break free from Catholicism and creates a new religion (Church of England, Protestant+Catholic, controlled by the king) • The Bible is translated into English. • Henry receives the money donated to church (he is very rich and powerful) • The relationship between Church and State became difficult.
Marriage problems 2 • Wife (2): Anne Boleyn (English) • Daugther (2): Elizabeth • Wife (3): Jane Seymour • Son (1): Edward • Wife (4): Anne de Cleves (Germany) • Wife (5): Catherine Howard • Wife (6): Catherine Parr 3 6 4 5
Succession to the throne: Protestant • King Edward VI (1537 – 1553) • Queen Mary I (1516 – 1558) • Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) Catholic Protestant
Accomplishments • PEACE in the kingdom (more than 50 years) • INDEPENDENCE (Spain, France) • FREEDOM to choose a religion • Discovery of NEW LANDS (America) + the beginning of the English Empire • Period of GREAT DEVELOPMENT of arts, sciences, etc. • SHAKESPEARE – perfection of English language