Environmental Science. Chapter 2 Lecture: Tools of Environmental Science. Section 1: Targets. I can list and describe the steps of the scientific method. I can describe why a good hypothesis is not simply a guess. I can describe the two essential parts of a good experiment.
Environmental Science Chapter 2 Lecture: Tools of Environmental Science
Section 1: Targets • I can listand describe the steps of the scientific method. • I can describewhy a good hypothesis is not simply a guess. • I can describe the two essential parts of a good experiment. • I can describehow scientists study subjects in which experiments are not possible. • I can explainthe importance of curiosity and open-mindedness in science.
The Scientific Method • Scientific Method: series of steps scientists use to ________ and ________________.
1. _______________ • Observation: getting/using information by using senses • Observations can take many forms: • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • ___________________ • Observations can be ________________ or ___________________
Name 3 Qualitative and 3 Quantitative Observations about the Following Photograph Qualitative 1. 2. 3. Quantitative 1. 2. 3.
2. ________________________ • Hypothesis: explanation based on observations. • not merely a guess, it is an _______________ • must be ________________ • should be stated in ______________ format.
3. __________________ • Good experiments have 2 essential characteristics: • _________________________________ • _________________________________ • ____________: the factor that changes in an experiment to test a hypothesis.
Experimenting • To test for one variable, scientists study two groups at one time, with a variable being the only difference between the two groups. • _____________________: exposed to the “thing” (variable) you are testing • _____________________:used as a comparison. • exactly the same as experimental group EXCEPT it is not exposed to the variable.
4. _______________________ • Data: information collected through observation or experimentation. • Should be organized into tables or graphs • Data can be QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE
5. ___________________ • Scientists determine results of their experiment by analyzing data and comparing the results of their experiments with their prediction.
Repeating Experiments • Scientists often repeat experiments • The more often an experiment can be repeated with the same results, in different places and by different people, the more sure scientists become about the reliability of their conclusions.
Characteristics of a Good Scientist • OSCO • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________ • _________________________
Comprehension Check 1. What is a testable explanation for an observation? A. a correlation B. an experiment C. an hypothesis D. a prediction
Comprehension Check 2. Why is being skeptical important to a good scientific mind? F. willingness to travel G. an empathetic nature H. desire to conduct experiments I. continually questioning observations
Comprehension Check 3. How many mussels are less than 25 mm in length? F. 6 G. 9 H. 12 I. 15
Comprehension Check 4. Determine the total size of this population of dwarf wedge mussels. A. 60 B. 80 C. 100 D. 120
Comprehension Check 5. What is the most likely size predictable for a mussel randomly drawn from this population? F. 15–20 mm G. 25–30 mm H. 30–35 mm I. 40–45 mm
Section 3: Target • I can describe four values that people consider when making decisions about the environment.
Values and the Environment • ________________is an essential first step in solving environmental problems. • _______________: principles or standards an individual considers to be important and affect environmental decision making.