Restoration Theory. ‘Our planet is a dangerous place, there is ruthless competition for limited resources and only the fittest survive. Yet all the most advanced animals, normally alert, shrewd and watchful, drop their defences to sleep’ (Blakemore, 1988).
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‘Our planet is a dangerous place, there is ruthless competition for limited resources and only the fittest survive. Yet all the most advanced animals, normally alert, shrewd and watchful, drop their defences to sleep’ (Blakemore, 1988).
Sleep occupies 1/3 of our time. What we are interested in when we study sleep:
What function is served by sleep?
What happens when we are deprived of sleep?
Why do most animals sleep?
In order to understand the functions of sleep, researchers have looked at the effects of sleep deprivation...
Aim: to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on rats
Method: Rats were forced to remain physically active by rotating a disc every time they started to go to sleep
Results: After 33 days, the rats
had all died
Deficits when sleep deprived?
PPs deprived of REM sleep seemed to have a need to catch up Attempts to enter REM sleep doubled from an average of 12 to 26 times by the seventh night. When allowed to sleep normally the participants spent much longer than normal in REM sleep, as did Randy Gardner.
Randy Gardner remained awake for 264 hrs/ 11 days in 1964. Toward the end of the 11 days he suffered from slurred speech blurred vision and paranoia. He had less symptoms that Peter Tripp (page 13, book) but was awake an extra 3 days.
After his deprivation Randy slept for 15 hours he slept for longer than usual for a few nights after but soon reverted back to his usual sleep pattern. He only recovered about 25% of the sleep lost (80-90hrs)
If sleep were that essential, would you expect him to have recovered more?
Further studies using humans:
Webb and Bonnet (1979a and b)
The function of sleep is to allow the body to be repaired/ restoredSWS enables body repair. REM sleep enables brain recovery(Oswald, 1980)
REM increases during recovery from brain injury, ECT & drug withdrawal
Extrapolating from hamsters, cats and rats to humans is always risky.
The research is not always RELIABLE and so we might question its VALIDITY. (cf human sleep deprivation studies and animal sleep depriavation studies – fatal or not fatal?)
Case Studies- 'Alien Among Us' criticism
It is easy to obtain quantitative (OBJECTIVE?) data on REM, amount of neurotransmitters etcEvaluation
Deficits in functioning when sleep deprived
'Rebound' effects following sleep deprivation
Increase in REM sleep during brain growth, reorganiation and repair
Increase in SWS during times of illness or injury
In pairs. One person is a radio presenter, the other, a sleep specialist.
In your pairs, practice asking and answering questions as if on a radio show.
Oswald (1980) and Horne (1988) are central to the restoration theory
Using the internet, discover how their approaches differ slightly.
Due Date: Wed 24th Nov