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Concentration. David Joun, Cindy Nguyen, Xarier Zamudio. What is it to Concentrate. To direct or draw toward a common center; focus. Being able to direct attention to relevant and important information Concentration

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David Joun, Cindy Nguyen,

Xarier Zamudio

what is it to concentrate

What is it to Concentrate

To direct or draw toward a common center; focus.

Being able to direct attention to relevant and important information


The act or process of concentrating, especially the fixing of close, undivided attention.

concentration lapse
Concentration Lapse
  • Performance progressively deteriorating and when it seems impossible to regain control
  • An example of this is “Choking”
examples of choking
Examples of “Choking”
  • Preparing a great deal for an exam only to perform poorly during the day of the exam
  • Shooting a game winning free-throw only to miss it due to nerves and anxiety
  • Going for the game winning hole at the PGA master’s but missing the hole
  • Missing the game winning field goal
approaches to understand concentration and attention
Approaches to understand Concentration and Attention
  • Informational Processing
  • Psycho-Sociological Approach
  • Psycho-Physiological Approach
informational processing
Informational Processing
  • Selective Attention
    • "process by which certain information from the internal or external environment enters the information-processing system while other information is screened out or ignored."
informational processing1
Informational Processing
  • We're constantly given too much information from internal and external environment.
  • Selective Attention necessary so only "few stimuli are processed"
  • selection is "voluntary" or "involuntary"
informational processing2
Informational Processing
  • main role in both learning and performing sports
    • stimuli essential for a particular performance change as function of practice and skill improvement
    • For example in wrestling one of the most important things is the take down aside for the ground game, thus one will selectively practice that
informational processing3
Informational Processing
  • conscious process to smooth unconscious process
    • control and automatic processing
  • control processing: "used to process novel or inconsistent information“
    • slow, effortful, capacity limited, controlled by individual
      • EX: typewriting
automatic processing: "performance of well-learned skills“
    • fast, effortless, not under direct conscious control
      • EX. skills developed over yrs of practice; a golfer swinging club after years of practice puts less effort and attention to it then a beginner
attention capacity
Attention Capacity
  • "control processing is limited in amount of information that can be processed at one time“
    • one complex task at hand at one time; hard to focus attention on 2 sources of information at one time
    • multi-tasking may impair performance
    • structural capacity limitations
    • central capacity limitations
structural: 2 tasks performed at same time using same receptor or effector systems
    • EX. listening to starter's gun at the same time listening to a voice in the crowd
capacity: 2 tasks compete for limited central information-processing capacity simultaneously
capacity limitations of automatic processing are less restrictive compared to control processing
psycho sociological approach
Psycho-sociological Approach
  • Distraction theories
  • Automatic Functioning
  • Attentional Style
distraction theories
Distraction Theories
  • "focus on loss of attention caused by factors that attract attention to task-irrelevant cues."
    • An athlete running a marathon
      • Lose concentration, lose focus and performance suffers
distraction theories1
Distraction Theories
  • Worry
    • Anxiety
  • worry as an emotional state distracts attention and thus can explain the negative effects of test anxiety on performance
    • anxious individuals focus attention on task-irrelevant thoughts and ignore critical task cues
    • Not focusing on what is important
distraction theories2
Distraction Theories
  • Defeating thought
    • Negative Thinking
    • Positive Thinking
      • Taking a Test
        • Negative “I am not going to pass”
        • Positive “Cant wait to party this weekend”
distraction theories3
Distraction Theories
  • self-awareness
    • While performing, attending to oneself not focusing
    • some say "it is impossible to attend to oneself and to the environment at the same time"
      • Self Talk
    • Outside environment
      • Cameras, pressure
automatic functioning
Automatic Functioning
  • relates to automatic processing
    • Typing, Texting, Piano
  • In competitive situations, when individuals realize importance of correct skill execution, they attempt to ensure success by consciously changing it
    • normally under automatic processing control now under control processing mechanism
attentional style1
Attentional Style
  • Broad-external: requires individual to focus on a wide area of external environment
    • Volleyball, Basketball
  • Broad-internal: attention is focused internally on a variety of strategies and past experience
    • Coach of a football team
attentional style2
Attentional Style
  • Narrow-external: appropriate for activities that require individual to focus on a narrow aspect of the external environment; e.g. golf ball
    • Golf, Bowling, Football Quarterback
  • Narrow-internal: attending to specific images or cognitive cues
    • Body building, Marathon running
attentional style3
Attentional Style
  • may affect performance in certain situations if athlete's style is incompatible with the attentional requirements of that situation
    • i.e., Football, baseball, race car driving
attentional style4
Attentional Style
  • There are tools to measure attention which assess strengths and weaknesses
    • TAIS-Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style
      • Scale only Measure the Narrow-Broad Dimension but not Internal-External dimensions

Psycho-Physiological Approach

  • Examples of Psycho-Physiological aspects concerning concentration and attention
    • Can’t focus because your hungry
    • Can’t focus because your sleepy
    • Can’t focus because your sick
    • Even having to go to the bathroom
psycho physiological approach
Psycho-Physiological Approach
  • This approach involves the investigation of component parts of auto regulation:
    • EEG, evoked response potentials (ERPs), and Heart Rate
Pro Golfers and Putting
  • Elite Shooters
  • Professional Athletes
Archers and elite shooters have been tested using EEG
    • As performance increased the profile of the EEG resembled elite archers
    • Heart decreased
    • Too much activity of the alpha waves gave a poorer performance
Things that can improve the physiological response
    • Breathing
    • Progressive muscular relaxation
    • Autogenic training
    • Meditation