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SUSHI. SUSHI AND SASHIMI. Sushi - ready-to-eat cooked rice that has been acidified with vinegar solutions formed with raw or cooked fish and other seafood, fresh chopped vegetables, pickles, tofu, etc. Sashimi - thin slices or slabs of raw fish that are presented ready-to-eat. Salmon- Sake.

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sushi and sashimi
  • Sushi - ready-to-eat cooked rice that has been acidified with vinegar solutions formed with raw or cooked fish and other seafood, fresh chopped vegetables, pickles, tofu, etc.
  • Sashimi - thin slices or slabs of raw fish that are presented ready-to-eat.
salmon sake
Salmon- Sake
  • Pink
  • Meat is rich, oily and semi-soft texture
  • There are white fatty bands- more white- more salmon flavor
  • High in Omega 3 fatty acids
  • 100 gm = 20 gm protein, 12 gm fat, 180 calories
tuna maguro
Tuna- Maguro
  • Maguro means Tuna
  • Ahi Tuna- also known as Yellowfin tuna-RUBY in color
  • Blue Fin Tuna (black diamond tuna)- RED in color
  • Healthiest choice among sushi fish
  • 4-oz = 120 calories, 1 gm fat, 27 gm protein
  • Subtle flavor, tender texture, robust taste, firm flesh, and minimal fat
albacore tuna shiro maguro
Albacore Tuna- ShiroMaguro

-‘White Tuna’ by Japan

-Pale in color

-Mild flavor

-Less firm then yellow fin tuna

-High protein

-Low fat

-1oz serving: 7 gm protein, 2gm of fat, 50 calories

escolar super white tuna
Escolar- Super White Tuna
  • Snake mackerel, not a tuna
  • Melt in your mouth oily texture
  • Known as Butterfish
  • Rich buttery taste
  • Slightly meatier than Ahi Tuna
  • Often misrepresented as Albacore tuna, Atlantic cod, oil fish, grouper and sea bass
  • Higher in fat
  • 3.5 oz serving = 14 gm fat, 187 calories, 18 gm protein
yellowtail buri natural hamachi farm raised
Yellowtail- (Buri- natural)(Hamachi- Farm Raised)
  • Relative of Tuna, but not Tuna
    • Amberjack, yellowtail amberjack and yellowtail
  • Buttery and delicate flavor
  • A fatty delicate fish raised specifically for sushi and sashimi in Japan.
  • “Affluent” fish
  • Relaxed, pampered environment promotes a fatty and delicate texture
  • Higher fat content and improved quality if farmed raised.
freshwater eel unagi
Freshwater Eel- Unagi
  • High in oil and protein
  • Bold, rich taste, earthy
  • Eaten cooked, not raw
  • Difficult to make- often purchased prepared by a Unagi chef.
  • Often eaten with sweet basting eel sauce
  • In Japan- mythical energizing powers and aphrodisiac qualities
mackerel saba
Mackerel (Saba)
  • Distinct oily flavor
  • Delicate fish often salt cured and rice vinegar rinsed. Often found pickled (Shime Saba)
  • Difficult to work with
  • Considered one of the healthier sushi fish- high in omega 3 and vitamin E.
  • 1oz= 58 calories, 4 gm fat, 5 gm protein
jack mackerel aji
Jack Mackerel- Aji
  • Hard to find delicacy
  • Firm, savory flavor
  • Is oily and salty like Mackerel but texture is more firm like tuna.
  • Not a real Mackerel-more closely related to Pompano or Jack Fish
  • 1 nigiri piece= 52 calories, 2.5 gm of protein, and 1 gm fat
red snapper tai
Red Snapper- Tai
  • Fresh, mild taste
  • Firmness similar to ahi tuna
  • turgid flesh, is very watery, and has a delicate sweet aroma
  • 1 nigiri piece= 41 calories, 3.4 gm of protein and fat is negligible
tilapia izumidai
Tilapia- Izumidai
  • Mild, refreshing flavor
  • Firm texture-similar to Tai
  • A white fish
  • Reasonably priced
other meats
Other Meats
  • Shrimp sushi (ebi)
  • Sea Scallops (hotategai)
  • Octopus sushi (tako)
  • Soft Shelled crab
  • Sweet Shrimp (amaebi)
  • Squid sushi (Ika)
  • Imitation crab
caviar and roe
Caviar and Roe

Smelt Roe- Red

Masago Orange-Smelt Roe- (Capelin Fish) Orange

Smelt Roe- Black

Ikura-Alaskan Salmon Caviar

Tabiko- Flying Fish Roe-Orange



Pickled Ginger

  • Acidification is only needed if the operator intends to leave the rice at room temperature—which is standard practice in making sushi
  • If rice will not be kept out of refrigeration, then the rice should be cooled using Food Code cooling parameter to 41ºFor kept above 135ºF
  • ACIDIFICATON of rice using vinegar, salt and sugar to a pH of 4.1 but not to exceed 4.6. Various recipe exist.
  • A pH meter or other effective testing devise shall be used to determine is the pH is met for every batch made

Conduct the pH test within 30 minutes after acidification of the cooked rice and as often as necessary to assure a targeted pH of 4.1 and an equilibrium pH of 4.6.

Make a rice slurry by gathering a 1/4 cup sample of the cooked, acidified rice taken from various locations in the batch and add 3/4 cup of distilled water in a clear plastic or metal blend cup. Blend the slurry for approximately 20 seconds. Verify pH with a calibrated pH meter by placing the meter in the liquid of the slurry.

ph meter
pH Meter

If the target pH is 4.1, two buffers for calibration should provide readings of 4.0 and 7.0. If the pH meter does not read the buffers correctly, make the necessary adjustment in the device according to the manufacturer’s instructions or replace the device

record keeping
Record Keeping
    • A HACCP plan must be developed and followed if Rice is being acidified
    • Must have SOPs in place for training, sanitation and similar required pre-requisite programs
    • pH tests, letters of guarantee from suppliers shall be available and kept at the production site
    • HACCP log sheets, acidification log sheet, corrective action documentation.
    • Shellstock identification shall be maintained for 90 days
    • Parasite destruction guarantees or documentation- 90 day retention
sushi guidelines
Sushi Guidelines
  • Dedicated preparation area- time or space
  • No bare hand contact
  • Approved sources of ingredients
  • Parasitic Hazard Control*
  • Histamine producing fish* shall have documentation provided from the supplier that temperature control have been met from harvest through delivery to prevent decomposition and thus histamine production.
sushi guidelines1
Sushi Guidelines
  • Cut veggies should be refrigerated
  • Bamboo mats shall be wrapped in plastic wrap and re-wrapped ever 4 hrs
  • Knives, cutting boards and other equipment in contact with PHF foods- cleaned and sanitized every 4 hours.
  • Consumer Advisory: must be provided according to code for products with raw animal foods.
parasite destruction
Parasite destruction
  • Frozen & stored at -4°F or below- 7 days
  • Frozen to -31°F until solid & stored at -31°F or below for at least 15 hours
  • Frozen to -31°F until solid & stored at -4°F or below for at least 24 hours
    • MolluscanShellfish
    • Scallops with only abductor muscle
    • Tuna spp- Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control Guidance (yellowfin, bluefin, Bigeye)
    • Aquacultured fish, such as Salmon that:
      • Open waters-raised in net pens or raised in land-based operations (ponds, tanks) AND are fed formulated feed that contains no live parasites that could infect fish
histamine producers
Histamine producers
  • Some species of fish have been implicated in histamine poisoning. These are scrombriod toxin-forming species as defined in 21 CFR 123.3(m) as meaning bluefish, mahi-mahi, tuna, and other fish (not necessarily all in the Scrombriae family) in which high levels of histamine can be produced when exposed to elevated temperatures.
  • Fish and Fisheries Products Hazards and Control Guidance

labeling if packaged
Labeling- if packaged
  • Labels shall comply with 21 CFR Part 101 and the Food Code if packaged.
  • Shelf life (date marking) if held for 24 hrs or greater
  • Consumer Advisory on packaged products




    • Japanese tradition to fine dining
    • Female or male body presentation
    • Add a little sushi and other delectable
    • And what do you get?
niatimori is
  • Well-accepted-practiced tradition in Japan;
  • Recognized as an art form in Japan;
  • Part of the Geisha culture dating back hundreds of years.
  • Based on: sushi is made to delight the eyes and the palate. 
  • Sushi making is an art form and an artful presentation is goal.
  • What are the public health requirements?
    • No contamination of RTE foods;
    • No bare ….contact with RTE foods;
    • Time as a Public Health Control
    • Single Use or multi-use utensils
    • Discard what is not consumed in 4/6 hours
    • Others?