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MGTO120s Managing Communications

MGTO120s Managing Communications

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MGTO120s Managing Communications

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  1. MGTO120sManaging Communications Jian Liang MGTO, HKUST

  2. Where We Are Management Basic Concepts (Ch1) Retrospect (ch2) Context (ch3,4,& 5) Plan (ch6, 7,8,& 9) Organize (Ch 10 Lead Control Communication (Ch11)

  3. Learning Objectives • Understanding Communications • Differentiate between interpersonal and organizational communication. • Discuss the functions of communication. • The Process of Interpersonal Communications • Explain all the components of the communication process. • List the communication methods managers might use. • Describe nonverbal communication an how it takes place. • Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication and how to overcome them.

  4. Learning Objectives • Organizational Communication • Explain how communication can flow in an organization. • Describe the three common communication networks. • Discuss how managers should handle the grapevine.

  5. A case from Hong Kong Chan Kee Tong

  6. Chan Kee Tong • In what ways has Tong stated his work? • Is there a problem in Chan Kee Tong? • What are his weaknesses at this point? • What new options should be considered? • Which do you recommend? • Have you seen any of the types of communication problems in this case in your own experience?

  7. Communication in the Organizations • The transfer and understanding of meaning. • Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver. • Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message. • Interpersonal Communication • Communication between two or more people • Organizational Communication • All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization

  8. The Interpersonal Communication Process

  9. Interpersonal Communication • Message: • Source: sender’s intended meaning • Encoding • The message converted to symbolic form • Channel • The medium through which the message travels • Decoding • The receiver’s retranslation of the message • Noise • Disturbances in communications

  10. Interpersonal Communication Methods • Bulletin boards • Audio- and videotapes • Hotlines • E-mail • Computer conferencing • Voice mail • Teleconferences • Videoconferences • Face-to-face • Telephone • Group meetings • Formal presentations • Memos • Traditional Mail • Fax machines • Employee publications • Blogs

  11. Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) • Nonverbal Communication • Communication that is transmitted without words. • Sounds with specific meanings or warnings • Images that control or encourage behaviors • Situational behaviors that convey meanings • Clothing and physical surroundings that imply status

  12. Interpersonal Communication (Cont’d) • Body language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning. • Verbal intonation: emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning.

  13. Do you smile in talking with others?

  14. Questions for Thinking • Why is it difficult to communicate? • What is your experience regarding communication?

  15. Interpersonal Communication Barriers Filtering NationalCulture Emotions Language Interpersonal Communication Information Overload Defensiveness Let’s look at each

  16. Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication • Filtering • The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. • Emotions • Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages. • Information Overload • Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it.

  17. Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) • Defensiveness • When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding. • Language • The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages. • National Culture • Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns and use of information in communications.

  18. Facial Expressions Convey Emotions

  19. Cross-Cultural Barriers • Where to talk business in China and in US? • Feet on table? OK in US, but helped Beijing Jeep JV fail! • Voice (loudness)as an indicator of respect/status?

  20. A case of cross-cultural barriers

  21. Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications • Use Feedback • Simplify Language • Listen Actively • Constrain Emotions • Watch Nonverbal Cues

  22. Active Listening Behaviors

  23. Types of Organizational Communication • Formal Communication • Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job. • Informal Communication • Communication that is not defined by the organization’s hierarchy. • Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction. • Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication

  24. Communication Flows Diagonal Upward Downward Lateral

  25. Direction of Communication Flow • Downward • Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees. • Upward • Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect.

  26. Direction of Communication Flow (cont’d) • Lateral (Horizontal) Communication • Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination. • Diagonal Communication • Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed.

  27. Types of Communication Networks • Chain Network • Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward. • Wheel Network • All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group. • All-Channel Network • Communications flow freely among all members of the work team.

  28. Three Common Organizational Communication Networks

  29. Are Communications Effective? From Milliken, Morrison & Hewlin (2003)

  30. Why People do not Speak Up?

  31. Summary • The difference between interpersonal and organizational communications • Understanding the difficulties in interpersonal communications and how to overcome those barriers • Understanding the process of organizational communications