MGTO120sManaging Communications Jian Liang MGTO, HKUST
Where We Are Management Basic Concepts (Ch1) Retrospect (ch2) Context (ch3,4,& 5) Plan (ch6, 7,8,& 9) Organize (Ch 10 Lead Control Communication (Ch11)
Learning Objectives • Understanding Communications • Differentiate between interpersonal and organizational communication. • Discuss the functions of communication. • The Process of Interpersonal Communications • Explain all the components of the communication process. • List the communication methods managers might use. • Describe nonverbal communication an how it takes place. • Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication and how to overcome them.
Learning Objectives • Organizational Communication • Explain how communication can flow in an organization. • Describe the three common communication networks. • Discuss how managers should handle the grapevine.
A case from Hong Kong Chan Kee Tong
Chan Kee Tong • In what ways has Tong stated his work? • Is there a problem in Chan Kee Tong? • What are his weaknesses at this point? • What new options should be considered? • Which do you recommend? • Have you seen any of the types of communication problems in this case in your own experience?
Communication in the Organizations • The transfer and understanding of meaning. • Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver. • Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message. • Interpersonal Communication • Communication between two or more people • Organizational Communication • All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization
Interpersonal Communication • Message: • Source: sender’s intended meaning • Encoding • The message converted to symbolic form • Channel • The medium through which the message travels • Decoding • The receiver’s retranslation of the message • Noise • Disturbances in communications
Interpersonal Communication Methods • Bulletin boards • Audio- and videotapes • Hotlines • E-mail • Computer conferencing • Voice mail • Teleconferences • Videoconferences • Face-to-face • Telephone • Group meetings • Formal presentations • Memos • Traditional Mail • Fax machines • Employee publications • Blogs
Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) • Nonverbal Communication • Communication that is transmitted without words. • Sounds with specific meanings or warnings • Images that control or encourage behaviors • Situational behaviors that convey meanings • Clothing and physical surroundings that imply status
Interpersonal Communication (Cont’d) • Body language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning. • Verbal intonation: emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that conveys meaning.
Questions for Thinking • Why is it difficult to communicate? • What is your experience regarding communication?
Interpersonal Communication Barriers Filtering NationalCulture Emotions Language Interpersonal Communication Information Overload Defensiveness Let’s look at each
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication • Filtering • The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. • Emotions • Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages. • Information Overload • Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it.
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) • Defensiveness • When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding. • Language • The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages. • National Culture • Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns and use of information in communications.
Cross-Cultural Barriers • Where to talk business in China and in US? • Feet on table? OK in US, but helped Beijing Jeep JV fail! • Voice (loudness)as an indicator of respect/status?
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications • Use Feedback • Simplify Language • Listen Actively • Constrain Emotions • Watch Nonverbal Cues
Types of Organizational Communication • Formal Communication • Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job. • Informal Communication • Communication that is not defined by the organization’s hierarchy. • Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction. • Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication
Communication Flows Diagonal Upward Downward Lateral
Direction of Communication Flow • Downward • Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees. • Upward • Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect.
Direction of Communication Flow (cont’d) • Lateral (Horizontal) Communication • Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination. • Diagonal Communication • Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed.
Types of Communication Networks • Chain Network • Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward. • Wheel Network • All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group. • All-Channel Network • Communications flow freely among all members of the work team.
Are Communications Effective? From Milliken, Morrison & Hewlin (2003)
Summary • The difference between interpersonal and organizational communications • Understanding the difficulties in interpersonal communications and how to overcome those barriers • Understanding the process of organizational communications