Literary Terms #8 Literary Movements. AP English Literature and Composition Hilltop High School Mrs. Demangos. Classical Period 1200 BC-455 AD.
AP English Literature and Composition
Hilltop High School
This often tumultuous period is marked by the Middle English writings of Geoffrey Chaucer, the “Gawain” or “Pearl” Poet, the Wakefield Master, and William Langland. Other writers include
the Italian and French authors
like Boccaccio, Petrarch, Dante,
and Christine de Pisan.
This period marks the restoration of Charles II after a long period of Puritan domination in England led by Oliver Cromwell. Dominance of French and Classical influences on poetry and drama is evident. Writers include: John Dryden, John Lock, Sir William Temple, Samuel Pepys, and AphraBehn in England. Abroad, representative authors include
Jean Racine and Molière.
This period marks the transition toward Romanticism. Major writers include Dr. Samuel Johnson, Boswell, and Edward Gibbon, all who represent Neoclassical tendencies, while writers like Robert Burns, Thomas Gray, Cowper, and Crabbe show movement away from the Neoclassical ideal.
as events that are extraordinary, exceptional, or extreme.
seeking to depict life as
accurately as possible, without
artificial distortions of emotion,
idealism, and literary
The school of thought is a product of post-Darwinian biology in the nineteenth century. It asserts that human beings exist entirely in the order of nature.
Examples of this include Stephen Crane's "The Open Boat," which pits a crew of shipwrecked survivors in a raft against starvation, dehydration, and sharks in the middle of the ocean, and Jack London's "To Build a Fire," which reveals the inability of a Californian transplant to survive outside of his "natural" environment as he freezes to
death in the Alaskan wilderness.
(1) a concern with man's essential being and nature,
(2) an idea that existential "angst" or "anguish" is the common lot of all thinking humans who see the essential meaninglessness of transitory human life,
(3) the belief that thought and logic are insufficient to cope with existence, and
(4) the conviction that a true sense of morality can only come from honestly facing the dilemma of existential freedom and participating in life actively and positively.
The influence also spread later to Günter Grass in Germany and John Fowles in England.
An example of magic realism would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings," a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by enormous buzzard wings attached to his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to claim the fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the sky by storm winds during the previous night. Not having the heart to club the sickly angel to death, the protagonist decides instead to keep the supernatural being captive in a chicken coop. The very premise of the story reveals much of the flavor of magic realism.