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Disadvantage and Road Safety Victoria Pyta ARRB Group
Background • Objectives • Definition of disadvantage Project Overview
Background • Austroads project SS1761 (2012 – 2015) • Literature review • Data analysis and modelling • Consultation • Project Team: • Project Technical Leader: Victoria Pyta (ARRB) • Project Manager: Anita Baruah (VicRoads) • Quality Manager: Dr Peter Cairney (ARRB)
What is disadvantage? • What is disadvantage? • Low income relative to others and/or expenditure on necessities • Barriers to education, social opportunities or work • A ‘relative’ and ‘multi-dimensional’ concept • How is disadvantage related to road safety? • Socio-economic disadvantage is associated with higher injury rates due to transport-related injuries.
Effects of disadvantage on road trauma • Factors that are associated with both disadvantage and road trauma • Interventions Literature review
Victoria, Australia • Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit • Transport injuries represent 14% of all injuries in the hospital admissions data • Persons with greatest risk come from the 2nd and 3rd quintiles
New South Wales, Australia • Remoteness and low SES associated with increased risk of death among young drivers Rural fatalities Low SES fatalities • Higher posted speed limits • Fatigue • Drink-driving • Seatbelt non-use • Higher posted speed limits • Fatigue • Driving an older vehicle
Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand • Among most severely disadvantaged • High road fatality rate compared to non-indigenous populations • Cultural and language differences Australia New Zealand • Drink driving • Unlicensed driving • Remoteness amplifies problems and accounts for much of the disparity • Over-representation is particularly strong among 15-24 year olds • Disparities persist after accounting for differences in SES
International • Many studies (UK, Europe, Israel, USA) • Disadvantage associated with higher risk, particularly for child pedestrians • Concomitant factors: • Environmental, e.g. location (especially remoteness), exposure • Behavioural factors, e.g. unlicensed driving, drug and alcohol use • Socio-cultural factors, i.e. peer group and culture • Personal factors, e.g. health, self-efficacy
Existing interventions • Low income earners (registration discounts and discounts on drink drive programs) • Indigenous communities (wide range) • CALD communities (translation, education and awareness raising, licensing assistance) • Young drivers (supervised practice, first car safety) • Children (proper restraint use and early childhood road safety education) • Engineering treatments • Enforcement and diversionary programs • Partnerships and community engagement
Data sources • Results so far (exploratory descriptive analysis) • Next steps, methods and data sources Data Analysis
Data sources (Australia) • Crash data with postcode of crash involved persons • Vic, NSW, SA • NZ (needs to be geocoded) • SES data • ABS Index of Relative Social Disadvantage (IRSD) • Remoteness data • ABS remoteness index • Potential for inclusion of travel survey data • e.g. ABS Survey of Motor Vehicle Use (SMVU)
Index of Relative Social Disadvantage (Australia) • Takes into account: • Income • Household occupancy • Vehicle ownership • Illness and disability • % of residents speaking LOTE • % of residents of indigenous origin • Etc.
Looking forward Years 2 and 3
Remainder of 2013 – Modelling • Develop model for crash risk associated with SES that takes into account: • Demographic profile of area • Remoteness • Environmental factors (e.g. speed limits) • Individual demographic factors (age, gender etc.) • Behavioural factors (e.g. restraint use) • Other explanatory factors (e.g. vehicle age)
2014/15 • detailed consultationregarding the operation of programs for disadvantaged groups or locations • develop recommendationsfor actions to address these issues
Acknowledgements • Data providers in road agencies • SS1761 Project Team: • Dr Peter Cairney, Principal Behavioural Scientist (ARRB) • Anita Baruah, Senior Policy Analyst, Road Safety and Network Access (VicRoads) • Project steering committee • Supervisor • Dr Lyndon Walker, Swinburne University firstname.lastname@example.org +61 3 9881 1640