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Institute of Technology of Cambodia

Institute of Technology of Cambodia

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Institute of Technology of Cambodia

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  1. Food Spoilage and Food preservation Institute of Technology of Cambodia Professor : Dr. HulSeingheng Group member:I3GCA-3 • Hun Lina • HuotSyradeth • Kak Mei • KhuonChann • M. Kin Kimsok • 2010-2011 Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology

  2. II. How can food be preserved? I. How do microbes cause food spoilage? • Physical method • Chemical method

  3. Food spoilage is the process which damage the food Spoiledfoodis the food whose chemical characteristic is destroyed, and it is smelly, bad appearance, the unpalatable taste, odour or texture. Why the food are spoiled? Microbes, chemical reactions food spoilage

  4. Microbesbreak down Protein into amino acid, amines, hydrogen sulphide and amonia. . Hydrogen sulphide smelly . Sulphur smelly . Fats . Carbohydrate acid, alcohol, gas Chemical reaction: oxidation, enzymatic activity

  5. Microbes that cause food spoilage calledProteolytic. • They are Enterobacteriaceae,staphylococci, micrococci, aerobic Gram-positive sporingbacilli, pseudomonads, moulds… For example: Black spots on meat are caused by Cladosporiumspecies. White spots are caused by Sporotrichumcarnis. Yellow or greenare caused by Penicilliumspecies.

  6. Milk is an excellent growth medium for bacteria, moulds,yeasts. -Souring of milk is the result of acid fermentation by lactobacilli ( or lacto bacteria or Clostridium septicum). -Clostridium sordeliiis a clostridium that causes milk proteins to clot

  7. -Lactococcuscremorisand Enterobacteraerogenescauses the formation of ‘ropy’ milk. -Clostridium sporogenesbreak down milk proteins to produce alkaline products. -Clostridium novyiforms gas from milk. In turn, moulds and yeasts may break this down.

  8. II. How can food be preserved? • Physical method • Pasteurize • Sterile • Cooking • Chilling • Drying • Osmotic protection • Filtration • Irradiation • Vacuum package • 2. Chemical method

  9. 1. Physical method • Pasteurize • The process that slow the activities of microbes • Condition: ~ 60 0C -70 0C for 15min • b. Sterile • The process that almost completely kills microbes • Condition: >121 0C for about 5min • c. Cooking • This process causes the denaturation of autolyticenzymes, tenderises food, imparts desirable flavours and odours to the food and it alters the microbial flora, eliminating many heat-sensitive organisms. Cooking does not always kill microorganisms.

  10. Overcooking may produce an unacceptable food. There may be a conflict between a desirable food and one that is microbiologically safe. The soft-boiled egg affords a good example of cooking. d. Chilling is used to delay its decomposition, to slow the growth of spoilage organisms and to retard the activities of autolytic emzymes by storing food in the low temperature (the refrigerater).

  11. However, it is not without problems: Listeria monocytogenesgrow very well at the temperatures found in refrigerators. -cook-chill food : at the temperature above freezing -strawberies: not suitable for freezing (flash freezing) • e. Drying • The process of removing the water from the food. • NB: Dried fruits and vegetable often retain some water that moulds can grow .

  12. f. Osmotic protection Two principal processes: salting or high sugar environment. Most spoilage bacteria and yeasts cannot tolerate salt concentrations of about 10%. The sugar concentration in foods must be higher than 50%. Despite this, condensed milk is conferred by the moderately high concentrations of lactose.

  13. g. Filtration is the process of separation of microbes from liquid foodstuffs by using the filter sterilization. Liquid foodstuffs: wine, beer, cider, fruits juices, maple syrup andsoft drink. h. Irradiation is the process of preservation food by using light. It does not involve food heating. Food irradiation converts water to hydrogen peroxide and by generating free radicals that react with cellular components.

  14. It may produce unacceptable changes (causing odoursand unpleasant tastes). It has been employed to prolong the shelf life of soft fruits such as strawberries. Low-dose irradiation eliminate of salmonellas from poultry and to suppress the spoilage flora found on meats, poultry and fish. • i. Vacuum packaging • Is another that can help preserve the food. • --absence of O2 • --increase of CO2

  15. 2. Chemical method --sage, rosemary, garlic, onion --vinegar (pH too low for the growth) --smoking (70 C for 30min) --formaldehyde --phenolic --cresols

  16. 2. Chemical method --sodium benzoate --sulphur dioxide --sodium metabisulphite --salt of sorbic and propionic acid --nitrate, nitrite

  17. conclusion Through the article, we know why and how the foods are spoiled, then we can preserve them by various methods such as pasteurization, filtration and chemical substances.

  18. Thanks for your attention