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Ice Breakers. Name Where you were born Most interesting and/or fun thing you did over break What you like best about WSU/Pullman. Discussion Questions. What is marketing? What is marketing research? How does marketing research play a role in managerial decision-making?

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ice breakers
Ice Breakers
  • Name
  • Where you were born
  • Most interesting and/or fun thing you did over break
  • What you like best about WSU/Pullman
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • What is marketing?
  • What is marketing research?
  • How does marketing research play a role in managerial decision-making?
  • What are the different steps in a marketing research project?
what is marketing
What is Marketing?
  • American Marketing Association Definition:
    • Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.
  • In sum, marketing is about…
    • meeting needs
    • delivering value to all people affected by a transaction
    • getting the right product to the right folks at the right time/place for the right price using an appropriate combination of promotional techniques (the four Ps)
what is marketing research
What is Marketing Research?
  • American Marketing Association (p. 4 in your book):
    • …the function that links an organization to its market through the gathering of information. This information allows for the identification and definition of market-driven opportunities and problems and allows for the generation, refinement and evaluation of marketing actions. It allows for the monitoring of marketing performance and improved understanding of marketing as a business process.
  • Malhotra & Peterson (2006, p. 5):
    • …the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis, dissemination, and use of information that is undertaken to improve decision making related to identifying and solving problems (also known as opportunities) in marketing.
  • Feinberg et al. (2008, p. 4):
    • … the systematic process of using formal research and consistent data gathering to improve the marketing function within an organization. This information is used to identify opportunities and problems, monitor performance, and link marketing inputs with outputs of interest, such as awareness, satisfaction, sales, share and profitability.
the marketing concept
The “Marketing Concept”
  • Need for marketing research based on “marketing concept”
  • Idea introduced in 1952, GE’s Annual Report:
      • The (marketing) concept introduces the marketer at the beginning rather than at the end of the production cycle and integrates marketing into each phase of the business. Thus, marketing, through its studies and research, will establish for the engineer, the designer, and manufacturer, what the customer wants in a given product, what price he (or she) is willing to pay, and where and when it will be wanted. Marketing will have authority in product planning, production scheduling, and inventory control, as well as in sales, distribution, and servicing of the product.
  • Gave rise to the “Marketing System”
    • Conceptual model linking Independent Variables (causes) to Dependent Variables (outcomes)
    • Understanding the link between IVs and DVs (and reducing uncertainty) is a key function of marketing research 
marketing system
Marketing System

Dependent Variables

Independent Variables






Intent to buy


Understanding relationship

between IVs and DVs

is a key function of MR

Marketing Mix






Situational Factors





Economic climate


Gov regulation




Market share




From Feinberg et al. (2008)

the decision making process
The Decision-Making Process

1. Recognize a unique marketing problem or opportunity

2. Clarify the decision (what do we need to know?)

3. Identify alternative courses of action

4. Evaluate the alternatives

5. Select a course of action

6. Implement selected course of action and monitor results

From Feinberg et al. (2008)

common questions addressed by marketing researchers
Common Questions Addressed by Marketing Researchers
  • Where are new market opportunities (based on macroenvironmental trends)?
  • How should we segment the market (based on customer characteristics)?
  • How are we doing (compared to the competition)? Are consumers satisfied with our product or service? If not, what should we improve?
  • How should we position our product (relative to the competition)?
  • How will people respond to a new product concept? Test marketing…
  • If our product is priced at $100, what will be the expected demand?
  • How effective is our advertising? Promotions? Sales force?
  • What’s in store for the future, and how should we adapt?
  • Types of Marketing Research Firms
  • When is Marketing Research Needed?
  • Decision-Makers vs. Researchers
  • Iceberg Principle: Symptoms vs. Underlying Problems
  • Steps in Marketing Research
  • Elements in a Marketing Research Proposal
  • Unethical Activities in Marketing Research
marketing research industry
Marketing Research Industry

Research Supplier



Full Service

Limited Service






Data Coding

and Entry




AC Nielsen





Field Work





Malhotra & Peterson (2006)


When is Marketing Research Needed?

Exhibit 2.3

Can decision problem be resolved

with subjective information?


Type of information





Don’t undertake the

Info research process

Nature of decision

Is problem of strategic importance?


Is secondary data inadequate for

addressing the problem?



of data


Bring in

Marketing Researcher




Is there enough time to collect

data for managerial decision?



Are there enough resources

($, people) to carry out the study?







Does value of research

outweigh costs of research?

Do undertake the

Info research process


when not to conduct research
When NOT to conduct research…
  • Sufficient information for a decision already exists
  • Insufficient time for research – must make an immediate decision
  • Insufficient resources for research
  • When costs of research are greater than its benefits

Components of the Research Proposal

Purpose of proposed research plan (problem, objectives)

Type of study (e.g., exploratory, causal, primary, secondary etc.)

Define target population and sample size

Describe sampling technique and actual data collection methods to be used

Research instruments to be used

Possible managerial benefits

Proposed cost of whole project

Describe primary researchers and research firm

Proposed tables (how data might be presented)

researchers vs decision makers
Researchers vs. Decision-Makers



Like to explore new questions

Can tolerate long investigations

Not concerned about cost

Enjoy surprises

Tentative; speak in probabilities

Interested in past behavior

  • Want info to confirm decision
  • Want quick information
  • Less willing to pay for more info
  • Dislike & reject surprises
  • Decision- and results-oriented
  • Interested in future performance
step 1 identify and clarify information needs
Step 1: Identify and Clarify Information Needs
  • The researcher must work with the decision-maker (requestor) to…
    • Understand the reason for the research request
    • Help decision maker separate out symptoms (e.g., low sales) from causes (e.g., poor quality products)
    • Figure out unit of analysis: Individuals ? Couples? Families?
    • Narrow down independent variables (causes) and dependent variables (consequences)
step 2 specify research questions and define research problem
Step 2: Specify Research Questions and Define Research Problem
  • Most important step, because it influences all remaining steps
  • Initial research question
    • Will Boise support new stadium and a move from Single-A to Triple-A?
  • Revised research questions
    • Your questions?
step 3 confirm research objectives and evaluate the value of the information
Step 3: Confirm Research Objectives andEvaluate the Value of the Information
  • Building on the research questions, develop specific objectives of the research project and figure out the value of the information. For example, our objective is to find out:
  • Will Boise residents (and surrounding area) support a new stadium?
  • How many games would they be willing to attend with new stadium?
  • Would they attend more games if the Hawks were Triple-A?
  • How much more are they willing to spend if new stadium and Triple-A?
step 4 determine research design and data sources
Step 4:Determine Research Design and Data Sources
  • Exploratory
    • Unstructured or semi-structured data collection on a limited group of respondents
    • Focus groups, interviews, pilot studies
    • Can be used to develop future studies
  • Descriptive
    • Describes existing characteristics of a target population
  • Causal
    • Manipulate an independent variable (e.g., in-store music) and observe effect on dependent variable (e.g., sales)
step 5 determine sample plan and size
Step 5:Determine Sample Plan and Size
  • Census (a survey of all those in the target population) vs. a Sample (a smaller group of respondents who are representative of the target population)

Step 6:Assess Measurement Issues and Scales

  • Goal here is to determine what level of information is needed and to choose reliable and valid measures to assess the constructs of interest.

Step 7:Pretest the Questionnaire

  • A small group of respondents completes the questionnaire and provides feedback on it so any adjustments can be made before final sample completes it.
step 8 collect and prepare the data
Step 8:Collect and Prepare the Data
  • Interviewer-administered/self-completed questionnaires or observation
  • Data must be coded (female = 1; male = 2)and cleaned up (look for errors)

Step 9:Analyze the Data (the Fun Part)

  • Assess frequencies, relationships, cause and effect

Steps 10 & 11:Transform Data (Results) into Information

Prepare the Final Report

  • Interpret what the results mean. Answer the “so what?” question.
  • Prepare the final report.
unethical activities
Unethical Activities…
  • by Client (End User)
    • Solicit proposals, but choose none. Use proposals as a guideline for how to conduct one’s own study.
    • Promise a long-term relationship to get a low introductory rate, but then never follow through with more projects
  • by Researcher
    • Unethical pricing: promise low price, then jack it up
    • Fail to provide (promised) incentives to research subjects
    • Abuse respondents; promise short survey that turns into an hour; pass along information without permission; collect information without permission
    • Selling useless research services
    • Interviewers make up data (“curbstoning” or “rocking chair” interviewing)
    • Interviewers create “phantom” data (duplicate actual data to boost sample)
    • Change or fail to report results in an effort to reach a certain conclusion
  • by Respondent
    • Give misleading responses (can include “socially desirable” responding)