From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response

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  1. From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Road to War and the US Response

  2. The Great American debate over Interventionism or Isolation-1936-40 • 1.Interventionism argument- believed the US should support the Allies against Hitler in any way except actually entering the war.

  3. The Great American debate over Interventionism or Isolation-1936-40 • 2. Isolationism/neutrality argument- believed the US should completely stay out of the war

  4. TRADITIONAL U.S. FOREIGN POLICY WAS TO AVOID FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world” PRESIDENT WASHINGTON, 1796

  5. Event 1: Germany faces economic collapse • Germany severely punished for WWI in Versailles Treaty • land in Europe and colonies in Africa taken away • War Guilt Clause • No air force or navy allowed • Only allowed 100,000 troops • Had to pay $32 Billion to the countries it fought in WW I

  6. Event 1: Germany faces economic collapse • Germans like Adolf Hitler began to blame others for the economic problems- Jews

  7. US Response • US leaders favored isolationism again in 1920s-1930’s • US insisted Germany repay war debts to the European nations • Dawes Plan: USA loaned money to Germany to pay back war reparations • Germany went deeper into debt and never repaid

  8. COVER PAGE OF GERMAN EDITIONS OF MEIN KAMPF WRITTEN IN 1924 WHILE HITLER WAS IMPRISONED FOR STAGING A REVOLT

  9. Event 2: The Rise of Adolph Hitler • MEIN KAMPF: book by Hitler blaming Jews and communists for all of Germany's problems. • plans for world conquest. • Formed the Nazi Party to promote his views • wanted to create a “master race” of Aryans: white western and northern Europeans with blue or green eyes and blonde hair. • Hitler did not have blonde hair or blue eyes.

  10. Hitler as a baby and young boy

  11. Hitler at the height of his power 1938

  12. Hitler

  13. EXAMPLES OF NAZI ANTISEMITISM • Hitler believed that US society was weak by nature • Hitler believed American military was polluted by too many blacks and Jews • Break to video FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM

  14. Which German city hosted the 1936 Olympics? • Berlin

  15. How many gold medals did African American Jesse Owens win during the 1936 Olympics • 4 gold medals

  16. US Response to the Rise of Hitler • FDR, like Hitler, elected in the same year (1932) • FDR focused more on solving the America’s economic depression-who cares about Germany!? • Military spending not a priority- USA military 15thlargest in the world in 1935

  17. FDR (Franklin Delano Roosevelt)

  18. What did FDR use to help Americans face the conditions of Great Depression together?______________ • Fireside chats, newsreels, photos

  19. What 2 things did Hitler use in Germany to get out his message? • Radios/messages played over loud speakers • Propaganda Films

  20. What was the title of Hitler’s book • Mein Kampf

  21. Event 3: The Rise of Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini “Il Duce” (The Leader) • Totalitarian dictator of Italy • Led the Fascists -the nation and the Italian race more important than the individual • October 1935- Italy invaded Ethiopia

  22. Mussolini and Hitler-allies-Hitler admired Mussolini

  23. US Response • The Neutrality Acts: 1935-37, US Congress passed a series of isolationistlaws- forbid the sale of arms to militarily aggressive nations, like Italy and Ethiopia

  24. Event 4: The Rise of Militarism in Japan • Japan had a desire expand- to acquire raw materials, • Japanese militarists: Emperor is a god • wanted Japan to remove the US and all European colonial powers from the Pacific realm and rule Asia themselves • Militarists: a strong military (army, navy, air force) should be the most important goal for Japan (Nipon) • foreign conquest- a badge of honor for military leaders

  25. Event 4: The Rise of Japanese Militarism • 1905-took over Manchuria, China and all of Korea • 1930s Chinese cities of Shanghai and Beijing attacked and people massacred • 1937- Japan invaded china- the “Rape of Nanking” (400,000 murdered; 20,000 women raped)

  26. Hirohito was the last Japanese emperor to uphold the idea that Japan’s imperial rulers were gods

  27. A Japanese Soldier prepares to behead a man in Nanking, China (left)’ soldier holds a severed head (right)

  28. THE JAPANESE USED BOMBING TO TERRORIZE CHINA’s CIVILIAN POPULATION. THEY WERE NEVER SUCCESSFUL IN CONQUERING THE WHOLE COUNTRY CHINESE BABY BURNED AFTER JAPANESE BOMBERS STRIKE SHANGHAI IN 1937

  29. Chinese Rape Victims of the Japanese

  30. US Response to the Rise of Japanese Militarism • FDR protested the invasions • sent $25 million to Chiang Kai Shek to fight Japs • A US volunteer flying squadron arrived of “Flying Tigers” and fought the Japs • Cancelled 1911 Peace Treaty w/ Japan • Still no official military intervention- isolationism/neutral

  31. Event 5: Hitler annexed The Rhineland, the Sudetenland and Austria to become a part of Germany (1936-39)

  32. EUROPEAN LEADERS AT THE MUNICH CONFERENCE THAT GAVE THE SUDETENLAND TO HITLER. A PRIME EXAMPLE OF APPEASEMENT. NO REPRESENTATIVE FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS INVITED TO ATTEND. SPEECH BY HITLER NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN EDOUARD DALADIER

  33. The Nazis then Overran all of Czechoslovakia

  34. US Response • FDR: “the US government has no political involvements in Europe” • US continued to stay neutral- stayed out of the negotiations

  35. Event 6: The Invasion of Poland/Nazi-Soviet Pact • Next, Hitler wanted parts of Poland • Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939- Hitlerand Soviet leader Josef Stalinagreed to divide up Polandand not attack each other

  36. Hitler and Stalin-Many Wondered How Long the Honeymoon would last-it didn’t

  37. US RESPONSE • UStried to get President Moscicki of Poland and Hitler to negotiate, work out a peaceful settlement • US Neutralitycontinued

  38. Event 7: World War2Begins • September 1, 1939: Germany and the USSR invaded Poland • Luftwaffe- German airforce • Blitzkrieg- lightening warfare, intensive attack involving land and airforces

  39. TOOLS OF THE BLITZKRIEG

  40. Polish armies defeated in less than 3 weeks Britain and Francedeclared war on Germany Event 8: World War2Begins

  41. HITLER Next CONQUERedDENMARK, NORWAY, NETHERLANDS, BELGIUM, AND LUXEMBOURG-HITLER SURPRISED THE ALLIES BY HAVING HIS MAIN INVASION THROUGH LUXEMBOURG AND THE ARGONNE FOREST, AFTER FEINTING AN ATTACK THROUGH BELGIUM WHICH DREW THE ALLIED FORCES NORTH.

  42. HITLER’S INVASION OF NORTHWESTERN EUROPE ONE THREE TWO

  43. FRENCH AND BRITISH TROOPS TRAPPED AT DUNKIRK THE ALLIES WERE TRAPPED AND HAD TO EVACUATE THROUGH THE PORT OF DUNKIRK. “Wars are not won by evacuations”-Winston Churchill

  44. AFTER THE GERMANS LEFT DUNKIRK, THEY TURNED SOUTH AND DEFEATED THE REMAINING FRENCH ARMIES JUNE 22, 1940, FRANCE SURRENDERED TO GERMANY. GERMANY WAS MASTER OF ALL EUROPEAN CONTINENT, ITS FACTORIES AND RESOURCES, WITH EXCEPTION OF THE USSR. Only England remained Free.

  45. GERMAN TROOPS ENTER PARIS

  46. FRENCH WEEP AS THE GERMANS MARCH INTO PARIS

  47. HITLER VISITS PARIS FOR THE FIRST AND LAST TIME

  48. AUGUST 1940: WHICH NATION WILL BE HITLER’S NEXT TARGET FOR CONQUEST?