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BIENVENIDOS! WELCOME!. Agenda.

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slide1

BIENVENIDOS! WELCOME!

agenda
Agenda

SCERP Border Institute Objectives

Watersheds Watershed Approach

Transboundary U.S-Mexican

Objectives of BI Case Studies

Tools Mechanisms

Tour Break-Out Session

scerp cipas
SCERP/CIPAS

10 universities in all 10 border states

Established in 1990

Sustainability Sciences

Projects, Programs, Monographs, etc.

Boundary Organization

Policy Conference

scerp and watersheds
SCERP and Watersheds
  • Watershed focus for over a decade
  • Transboundary Watershed Research Project, Atlas, and Vision
  • Border Watersheds Vulnerability
  • Border Water GIS Summit
  • MOU with USGS and with INEGI
border institute series
Border Institute Series

Science-based “think tank” style

100 top-level border, and subject experts

Regional and long-term view

Informed papers, presentations, & panels

Break-out session to provide feedback in the form of policy recommendations

past border institute topics
Past Border Institute Topics
  • Demographics and its impacts
  • Environmental infrastructure & finance
  • Energy, trade, and the environment
  • Water management planning
  • Environmental health and indicators
  • Ecosystems protection and preservation
  • Air quality management
border institute viii
Border Institute VIII

Means and Mechanisms for Collaborative Planning and Operation of Transboundary and Shared Watersheds

How better align what’s being done on both sides

Motivate what isn’t yet happening on the other side

introduction to watersheds
Introduction to Watersheds
  • A collaboration story
  • Definitions
  • Approach
collaboration
Collaboration

Most [environmental] problems have arisen and resist solution because they involve conflicts between what individuals see in their own self interests and what is the collective good.

Simon Levin, 2005 Kyoto Laureate

collaboration role of feedback
Collaboration: Role of Feedback

Tightening feedback through more local control and monitoring and quicker information turnaround enhances cooperation, collaboration, and coexistence.

a sustainable watershed
A Sustainable Watershed

On the Cuenca de Rio Turia, near Valencia Spain, 15,000 farmers have successfully negotiated the supply and quality of water for their irrigation for at least 550 years.

collaboration based upon trust
Collaboration Based upon Trust

It is a closed market free-for-all… but it works.

“The key is that the community is still small enough for trust to be maintained.”

collaboration tight feedbacks
Collaboration: Tight Feedbacks

Their problems are negotiated at a “Tribunal de las Aguas” meeting on the steps of the cathedral every Thursday morning.

trust and data exchange
Trust and Data Exchange

Trust evolved from knowledge, which was derived from an information exchange, which needed a mechanism

Some similar mechanism is used to share what we have learned needs to be done.

To a point…

We need a better mechanism

recognition of watersheds
Recognition of Watersheds
  • National Academy of Sciences
  • US EPA, Interior, Army Corps of Eng.
  • Good Neighbor Environmental Board
  • 2004 Mexico Water Law recognized Organismos/Consejos de Cuencas
  • Goldman Prize 2006 Yu Xiaogong
what is a watershed
What is a Watershed?

A watershed is the area of land that drains water, sediment and dissolved materials to a common outlet along some point in the stream channel. Many ecological and human processes occur within a watershed, and contribute to the health (and economic benefits) of a watershed

connections
Connections

Watersheds are a geographical feature, but in reality they are more a series of connections between both natural and man-made processes…

connections1
Connections

Understandably, the term ‘Watershed’ infers the notion of connections of distinctly water aspects, but a wider view is needed to comprehend the impact of the various influences

what are these images missing
What are these images missing?

Each depiction does a good job incorporating various characteristics, but each lacks a very important aspect…

Watersheds have no regard for political boundaries and are not so easily placed into a contained framework

problem the missing features
Problem: The missing features
  • Watersheds do not fit one cookie-cutter shape, they vary drastically…there’s no one focus to solve all
  • They do not respect political sovereignty… political discontinuities must be addressed
  • Watersheds unite many factors…but who’s responsible for what is the difficult detail to pinpoint
what s in a watershed
What’s in a watershed?

1. Water

  • Surface Water Bodies
  • Groundwater/Aquifers
  • Stormwater
  • Floods or droughts
  • Wetlands
  • Near-shore coast!
what s in a watershed1
What’s in a watershed?

2. Water Diversions (lost water, habitat, and assimilative values)

  • Dams
  • Reservoirs
  • Channels
  • Irrigation
  • Pipes
  • Treatment plants
what s in a watershed2
What’s in a watershed?

3. Ecosystems

  • Habitats e.g. riparian
  • Listed species
  • Invasive species
  • Natural attenuation
  • Ecological processes
what s in a watershed3
What’s in a watershed?

4. Point and Non-Point Runoff Pollution

  • Pesticides
  • Fertilizers
  • Pathogens e.g. E coli
  • Contaminants e.g. gender benders
  • Hazardous Waste e.g. acids, inflammables, carcinogens
what s in a watershed4
What’s in a watershed?

5. Diseases

  • Pathogens
  • Hosts
  • Vectors
  • Breeding Grounds
what s in a watershed5
What’s in a watershed?

6. Us!

  • Navigation and Transportation
  • Energy (Deposition, Leaks)
  • Agriculture and Industry
  • Mining
  • Communities including Tribal Nations
what s in a watershed6
What’s in a watershed?

7. Politics

  • Subsidies
  • Treaties
  • Loans
  • Sales/Markets
  • Transfers
  • Supreme and Other Court Decisions
bowl of benefits or the value of unifying a watershed
Bowl of Benefits or the Value of Unifying a Watershed
  • Ecosystem Services (provisioning e.g. food, regulating e.g. floods, supporting e.g. nutrient cycling, hosting e.g. habitats)
  • Hydrological Resources
  • Ecological Processes
value of unifying a watershed
Value of Unifying a Watershed
  • Flood, scour, erosion, and sedimentation control;
  • Drought and shortage mitigation;
  • Infrastructure (i.e. water piping and treatment) burden sharing or reduction;
  • Groundwater recharge and protection from contamination and salination;
value of unifying a watershed1
Value of Unifying a Watershed
  • Instream flow conditions including fisheries, navigation, and recreation;
  • Flood plain and agricultural lands preservation;
  • Non-point pollution minimisation or mitigation;
  • Habitat, especially wetlands, protection and restoration; and
  • Disease prevention and control
watershed approach
Watershed Approach
  • Watershed scale, inclusiveness, and connectedness
  • Land and water use and treatments
  • Transcend all political boundaries
  • Non-point as well as point sources
  • Transfers only within a shed
watershed approach1
Watershed Approach
  • Offers opportunity for solutions
    • Reuse
    • Recharge
    • Restore
    • Recharge
    • Remediate
absence of watershed approach
Absence of Watershed Approach
  • Lining of the All American Canal
  • Salton Sea restoration
  • Yuma Desalination Plant
  • Bajagua “fit”
  • Recurring water debt and deficit issues
  • Mexico consultation before a “shortage” is declared on the Colorado River
slide42

Water Management Information System for the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin

Center for Research in Water Resources – University of Texas at Austin

CNA

IMTA

Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) of the Rio Grande basin on the American side. Source: USGS-NHD. Data Type: Coverage Feature Class, Geometry Type: Polygon, Coordinate System: GCS_North_American_1983, Datum: D_North_American_1983, Prime Meridian: 0. Scale: 1:100,000

Cuencas and Sub Cuencas for the Rio Bravo basin on the Mexican side.

Source: IMTA as a shapefile using ArcView 3.2. Original projection: Lambert conformal conical, NAD 1927; Scale: 1:250,000

The Rio Grande/Bravo basin was divided in hydrological sub regions according to the USGS - NHD criteria on the USA side (region 13 that includes 9 subregions), and the CNA criteria on the Mexican side (region 24 that includes 7 subregions). This information is included as a feature class within the Rio Grande/Bravo basin geodatabase

IMPORTING TIME SERIES INTO THE GEODATABASE

The ArcGIS format is applied to all time series data in order to include and relate them to the monitoring and control points in the geodatabase. The Time Series standard format of the ArcHydro schema was changed, adding one more table called TSGroup that contains information related to the agency from which the data is derived. Actually there are more than five million records included in the Rio Grande/Bravo Geodatabase

Digital Elevation Model of Mexico. Grid resolution: 90 m.

Source: INEGI. Original projection: Lambert; Datum: Nad 1927

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The Rio Grande/Bravo is a transboundary water source shared by the United States of America and Mexico. The river is the lifeblood for much of the economic activity in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo valley on both sides of the border. Recent drought conditions have increased tensions over water sharing in the basin. Several areas of conflict and possible negotiated remedies have been identified, but there is a lack of data available to use in analysis of alternative solutions to these problems. Although separate research efforts have been carried out in the United States and Mexico, there is no integral database that includes information from both sides of the Rio Grande/Bravo basin yet. As in many watersheds, knowledge and information available about the basin are fragmented, disjointed, incomplete, and sometimes inaccurate.

At this time in Mexico there is limited capacity to develop efficient management plans for the water in the Rio Grande/Bravo basin, given the existing infrastructure and the methods of application and distribution of the water. In addition, some decisions about water management are only partially supported, causing with it alterations in the global ecosystem. For these reasons it is fundamental to improve the administration and management of water in this basin. This will require assessment of water availability and how to manage it appropriately for agriculture, industry and other services, also taking into account ecosystem preservation.

In this project, the Center for Research in Water Resources (CRWR) of the University of Texas at Austin, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), the Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA), and the National Water Commission (CNA) of Mexico have cooperated to develop a relational database containing geographic, hydrologic, hydraulic and related data for the basin. This geospatial database has been implemented using the recently developed ArcHydro data model, which facilitates access to hydrologic information by models, and was to the entire Rio Grande/Bravo basin. This geodatabase is available to Mexican and U. S. federal, state, and local organizations, and training has been provided in Spanish and English to facilitate its use. This work assists in enhancing bi-national cooperation between Mexico and the United States concerning water in the Rio Grande basin, providing accurate and reliable data necessary for analysis and resolution of water resources issues.

Participants:

Dr. Daene C. McKinney, Dr. Carlos Patiño & Dr. David Maidment Contact and Information: carlos_patino@mail.utexas.edu http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/riogrande.shtml

This research was partially funded by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the North American Development Bank

Original Digital Elevation Models of the Rio Grande basin on the USA side in the

Seamless format. Grid resolution: 30 m. Source: USGS

Original projection: GCS_ NAD 83

The DEMs for the Rio Grande/Bravo basin were classified by hydrologic subregions. The cell size for the whole basin is 30 m and every DEM includes a buffer of 10 Km in order to delineate correctly the watersheds.

The final projection is Albers equal area; datum NAD1983

  • WRAPHydro Data Model objectives
  • To build a hydro data model for the WRAP project from the basic Arc Hydro model.
  • This model would be called WRAP Hydro.
  • To devise a new method of defining the basin boundary to act as an analysis mask for processing grids and watersheds.
  • To develop a new vector based method for determining watershed parameters using the Arc Hydro-WRAP model.
  • To verify the validity of dividing the basin into subregions for parameter development.
  • To explore the possibility of efficiently adding stream networks and control points after completing the process of developing the parameters.

WRAPHydro data model schema format

Gage stations where the drainage areas calculated with the methodology of this research are compared with the drainage areas reported by the USGS, IBWC, TCEQ, and Mexican National Water Commission for the whole Rio Grande/Bravo basin. It can be seen that the biggest difference of around 4,000 square kilometers is found in the gage station located at Fort Quitman (gage number 2). This difference is because the drainage area value reported by the USGS for this station considers part of a closed basin located upstream, which does not contribute to the Rio Grande/Bravo basin. In general, the difference between the drainage areas calculated for every control point in this research and the values reported by the official agencies of both countries of this basin is less than 3%

Connectivity in the Rio Grande/Bravo basin after the WRAPHydro Tools were applied to get the Precipitation, Curve Number and Drainage Area parameters. Also, the watersheds were re-delineated for every hydrological SubRegion and assembled using the Raster-Network regionalization technique. The red lines show the river network connectivity in this binational basin.

but the problem is
But the Problem is:

Further fragmentation of data by “stove-piping or pigeon-holing”

  • Supply
  • Quality
  • Health
  • Treatment
  • Disposal
  • Habitat
incongruities
Incongruities
  • Water supply is a U.S. Department of Interior and a SEMARNAT-CNA responsibility in Mexico.
  • Water quality is a U.S. EPA and a SEMARNAT and Salud shared responsibility.
  • Water-borne and water-associated human health is a U.S. Public Health and a Salud mandate in Mexico.
  • Water and wastewater infrastructure are jointly managed by both the IBWC, BECC, NADBank.
overcoming divisions
Overcoming Divisions
  • The La Paz Agreement provides for cooperation and annexes.
  • EPA-SEMARNAT Border 2012 Program does not include the U.S. Department of Interior.
  • The North American Partnership for Prosperity and Security has not matured enough.
  • The binational IBWC/CILA are trusted and empowered to address such water issues.
overcoming divisions1
Overcoming Divisions
  • The San Diego-Tijuana region has written a Tijuana River Watershed “Vision” that acts as a template for binational collaboration. It has established a Binational Water Advisory Committee (BWAC) that informally advises the two local Consul Generals’ Border Liaison Mechanism (BLM) Water Technical Council.
overcoming divisions2
Overcoming Divisions
  • Through the International Joint Commission (IJC) the U.S and Canada have a draft Water Quality Agreement for the Great Lakes that can inform the U.S.-Mexican process.
  • A water ethos and conservation education programs is a critical component of most watershed programs elsewhere.
overcoming divisions3
Overcoming Divisions
  • The BECC and NADBank have funded water conservation programs in conjunction with their water treatment plant support.
  • The Colorado River compacts may soon declare a shortage which triggers certain conservation. That declaration needs to be coordinated with Mexico.
overcoming divisions4
Overcoming Divisions
  • Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessments are used to notify one side of a project or activity on the other side which will have significant water quality or supply impacts.
  • The Department of Interior and SEMARNAT have a series of Joint Declaration and Letters of Intent for adjacent natural areas and rivers.
overcoming divisions5
Overcoming Divisions
  • Wastewater reclamation and reuse agreements may be established for use of effluent from joint water treatment plants.
  • Aquifer assessments can be conducted to assess transborder resources and flows.
overcoming divisions6
Overcoming Divisions
  • Another possible border watershed planning and operating mechanisms would be movement towards a Comprehensive Transboundary International Watershed Management Agreement tailored after the ASCE Environmental and Water Resource Institute model 33-01 currently being finalized.
slide55
Introduction to Shared Transboundary Watersheds and the Special Case of U.S-Mexican Watersheds
river watersheds of the border
River Watersheds of the Border

Tijuana * Tecate Salton/New

Colorado* Sonoita San Simon/Vamori

El Sasabe Santa Cruz San Pedro

Agua Prieta Mimbres Grande/Bravo*

San Juan, Alamo, San Diego, San Rodrigo,

Escondido, Salado Rivers, and Las Vacas Arroyos*

Conchos* Pecos* Devils*

Goodenough Springs, and Alamito, Terlingua,

San Felipe, and Pinto Creeks*

* Mentioned in Treaty of 1944

slide59

P.B. DRENAJE DREN PESCADEROS

P.B. DRENAJE RIO BURNA

P.B. KM 26+000

P.B. DRENAJE RIO HARDY

P.B. KM 40+000

special cases for several reasons
Special cases for several reasons.
  • They are semi- to very arid.
  • They cross not only international but tribal, state, county/municipio, local, and, of course, water utility and irrigation district boundaries.
  • They combine the sometimes radically different pollutants, controls, and land uses of an affluent and a still developing nation.
special cases
Special cases
  • One’s water crosses the border three times (Santa Cruz, Gila, and Colorado)
  • One river (Bravo/Grande) has dried up in up to four places before reaching the sea (Fort Quitman To Conchos, below each dam, and at the mouth)
  • Only river is only unallocated river in western U.S. (San Pedro)
why plan for watersheds for the long term
Why plan for watersheds for the long-term?
  • Global climate change (GCC) can now be described as global climate chaos, crisis, and potentially catastrophe.
  • The U.S. is calculated to be unable to meet its treaty obligation to Mexico most of the years of the rest of the century.
  • Regardless if whole or partial, short-term or long-term, planning needed.
why plan binationally
Why Plan Binationally?
  • Alternative Futures (Kepner et al, 2004)
    • Planning reduces runoff, scour, erosion, sedimentation, overdrafting
  • How plan? Together
  • How plan together? Role of mechanisms for binational collaboration
restatement of the problem
Restatement of the Problem

How can we “align” seemingly dissimilar policies across a (any) border?

How can we enlarge all agents’ perspective to envelop a watershed?

What means and mechanisms exist to be used to collaborate?

What do we need to invent?

treaty of 1944 and ibwc cila
Treaty of 1944 and IBWC/CILA
  • Over covers three rivers (only two quantitatively): What about the rest?
  • No watersheds (Minute 306)
  • No groundwater
  • Few actual rules
other treaties
Other Treaties
  • La Paz
  • Bellagio
  • NAFTA
  • EPA-SEMARNAT Border 2012 Program
    • Goal 1, Objective 2: “Assess shared and transboundary waters and meet standards”
    • Tool: “Sustainable Management of Water Resources”
  • North American Security and Prosperity
opportunities exist
Opportunities Exist
  • U.S. After 50 years of Clean Water Act, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) rules
  • MX: Ordenamiento Ecologia (OE), Organismos y Consejos de Cuencas
  • Joint: BECC-NADBank, IBWC-CILA, CEC
  • Other: GNEB, BTA, USMCoC
implications mx o e and o cdc
Implications (MX O.E. and O/CdC)
  • CNA delegates authority and autonomy to local control
  • Consensus required of all stakeholders including mandated NGO, academic, community involvement
  • Fiscal resources generated within stay within and can be used for needed projects including ecosystem services
implication 2
Implication 2
  • Combine, consider, and balance ecological vulnerability, environmental quality, and economic productivity
  • Systemic, not just water
  • Provide for trans-jurisdictional and cross governmental level cooperation
objectives of this bi
Objectives of this BI
  • Understand the challenge of watersheds
  • “Binationalize” and tailor the watershed approach to each setting
  • Identify successful and new opportunities for collaboration
  • “Institutionalize” mechanisms for collaboration across all borders
sovereignty jurisdictions and agreements
Sovereignty, Jurisdictions, and Agreements

“The Coase theorem says that a bilateral externality will be corrected by the parties themselves provided they are allowed to negotiate and can rely on a third party to enforce such an agreement.”

Scott Barnett Environment and Statecraft

example
Example

A shortage on the Colorado River is anticipated.

When the shortage is declared, conservation and cuts will be imposed.

Mexico has not been “consulted”.

The Upper and Lower Compacts have not agreed about how to meet treaty.

ruckelshaus guidelines
Ruckelshaus Guidelines:
  • Collaborative processes takes time.
  • Every stakeholder must be brought in early.
  • Relevant government agencies should sponsor the effort but stand aside.
  • Alternates to collaboration are unacceptable.
ruckelshaus guidelines1
Ruckelshaus Guidelines:
  • The process needs professional facilitation.
  • Access to data is essential.
  • The impacts to the economic can be confronted in detail.
  • The goal is a deep and meaningful solution.
our challenge
Our Challenge
  • Binationalize
  • Prioritize
  • Implement
  • Fund!
some funny funding ideas
Some Funny Funding Ideas
  • Mitigation Bank
  • Trading (Water, Nutrients, Ecosystem Services)
  • Water Impact Surcharges
  • Ordenamiento Ecologia
  • TMDL
  • SB 1952
  • Bonds
slide84
Goal

Regional traction on an agreement to enable, facilitate, and eventually empower local watershed initiatives

slide85

Past (click)Current Regimes/ProgramsEmerging/Future RegimesGoals/Models

(Unilateral  Collaborative) (Bilateral)

Overall

H2O Qual

H2O Supply

Ground H2O

Land Use

Infrastruct.

IENGOs

slide86

Past (click)Current Regimes/ProgramsEmerging/Future RegimesGoals/Models

(Unilateral  Collaborative) (Bilateral)

Border 2012

WPF, BITF, WTF

Overall

H2O Qual

H2O Supply

Ground H2O

Land Use

Infrastruct.

IENGOs

TRW & WTC

BiNat’l WQ study

(draft)

FCC

Nogales Wash GW

Monitoring

ADWR

Best Management

Practices

Riparian restoration

projects

NPS Runoff

Controls

Conchos Irrigation Dist.

Water Construction Grants

slide87

Past (click)Current Regimes/ProgramsEmerging/Future RegimesGoals/Models

(Unilateral  Collaborative) (Bilateral)

Complimentary W/S

Efficiency & Cons.

Programs

Border 2012

WPF, BITF, WTF

Overall

H2O Qual

H2O Supply

Ground H2O

Land Use

Infrastruct.

IENGOs

TRW & WTC

Sampling M.O.U.,

Data Trading

Int’l WQ Study

BiNat’l WQ study

(draft)

Conservation

triggers

Shortage notice

FCC

Bingaman Aquifer

Assessment Bill

Groundwater

Agreement

Nogales Wash GW

Monitoring

Bank

nutrients/water

Bellagio Draft

GW treaty

ADWR

Best Management

Practices

NPS Runoff

Controls

Californias (BiNat’l)

W/S Strategic Plan

Conchos Irrigation Dist.

Water Construction Grants

slide88

Past (click)Current Regimes/ProgramsEmerging/Future RegimesGoals/Models

(Unilateral  Collaborative) (Bilateral)

Complimentary W/S

Efficiency & Cons.

Programs

Border 2012

WPF, BITF, WTF

Overall

H2O Qual

H2O Supply

Ground H2O

Land Use

Infrastruct.

US-MX Watershed Plan & Joint Org. de Cuencas

IENGOs

TRW & WTC

Sampling M.O.U.,

Data Trading

Int’l WQ

Study

BiNat’l WQ study

(draft)

Conservation

triggers

Shortage notice

FCC

Groundwater

Agreement

Bingaman Aquifer

Assessment Bill

Nogales Wash GW

Monitoring

Bank

nutrients/

water

Bellagio Draft

GW treaty

ADWR

Best Management

Practices

Riparian restoration

projects

NPS Runoff

Controls

Californias (BiNat’l)

W/S Strategic Plan

Conchos Irrigation Dist.

Water Construction Grants

authority for a declaration
Authority for a Declaration
  • La Paz Annex created the JAC
  • Ordenamiento Ecologia and Organismos/Consejos de Cuencas
  • 1944 Treaty and IBWC (Min 294 Technical Committee and 306 Advisory Council, Convening Influence, Informal government-to-government meetings)
  • Cooperative Conservation Executive Order
  • Endangered Species Act
break out session1
Break-Out Session
  • SUPPLY: Stocks, Flows, and Infrastructure
  • GROUNDWATER: Inter-jurisdictional
  • RUNOFF: Non-Point Pollution
  • QUALITY: Point Pollutants and Treatments
  • MECHANISMS: Legal, Policy, Institutional
break out session2
Break-Out Session
  • INNOVATIONS: Finance and Economic
  • LIVING RESOURCES: Riparian Issues
  • DATA: Science, GIS, Outreach
  • GOVERNANCE: Inter-Level
  • ROADMAP Process to Develop Plans, Agreements, Treaties
policy format borrif
Policy Format (BORRIF)
  • Background
  • Option
  • Recommendation
  • Rationale
  • Implementation/Fund
water budgets water balances
Water Budgets/Water Balances

B: No budget/balance has been developed for the local level nor do existing ones consider usage on the other side.

O: Mimbres basin water budget in the South West New Mexico Regional Water Plan: What if Columbus were to construct a water budget which could mesh with the regional one? What if Palomas did likewise?

O: Water balance for the NW part of Chihuahua in the Programa Hidráulico Regional 2002-2006: What if a water balance were developed for Palomas, and Columbus?

R: If both Columbus and Palomas created water budgets/ balances using the same standards for each side, their data could be meshed with the respective basin data in accord with protocols, thus being usable in both systems while enabling better understanding of the regional basin.

thanks
THANKS!
  • SCERP Staff, Chair Management Committee, Advisory Council
  • Sponsors EPA, SEMARNAT, BTA USMCoC
  • Authors, Presenters, Panelists
  • Translators and Hotel Staff
  • Participants!