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Defense against Disease. Physical and Chemical Defenses. Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly and pathogens on those skin cells shed with them.

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physical and chemical defenses
Physical and Chemical Defenses
  • Skin- Both a physical and chemical barrier. Sweat contains acids that kill many bacteria. Skin cells shed constantly and pathogens on those skin cells shed with them.
  • Mucous Membranes- Openings such as mouth, eyes, and nose. Secrete liquid called mucus, which trap pathogens and washes them away. Also contains chemicals that attack pathogens.

Cilia- Tiny hair like projections. Line mucous membranes. Ex. Breathing in dust.

  • Saliva and tears- Contain chemicals and also wash away pathogens
  • Digestive system- Chemicals such as acid, the motions of the digestive system, and excretion all help get rid of pathogens
  • This is your bodies general response to injuries
  • Phagocytes- White blood cells that leak out of cells when injury occurs
  • Phagocytes engulf and destroy pathogens while the area is inflamed
  • Phagocytes also give off substances that promote healing.
the immune system
The Immune System
  • White blood cells called Lymphocytes carry out most of the immune system’s functions
  • Immunity is when the body is already equipped to destroy pathogens that enter the body
  • Killer T cells- Destroy pathogen
  • Helper T cells- Produce chemicals that stimulate other T cells and B cells to fight off infection
  • Suppressor T cells- turn off other immune system cells when an infection has been brought under control

B cells produce antibodies.

  • Antibodies are proteins that attach to the surface of pathogens or to the toxins produced by pathogens.
the lymphatic system
The Lymphatic System
  • A network of vessels that collect fluid from your tissues and return it to the blood stream. This fluid is called lymph fluid.
  • Have hundreds of small stations called lymph nodes
  • Lymph nodes act as a sort of filter
  • Phagocytes and lymphocytes are contained in the lymph node and attack pathogens
passive and active immunity
Passive and Active Immunity
  • Passive: Immunity acquired by receiving antibodies from a source other then one’s own immune system. This is temporary and not life long.
  • Ex. Babies receive antibodies from the mother’s milk
  • Active: Results from having a disease or receiving a vaccine.
common infectious diseases
Common Infectious Diseases

Bacterial Diseases

  • Strep Throat: Found usually in the nose and throat. Symptoms: Swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, head ache, and fever. Diagnosed by swabbing the throat
  • Lyme Disease: contracted when bitten by a tick. Symptoms: red rash at bite site, fevers, chills and body aches.

III. Bacterial Meningitis: Infection of the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Symptoms: high fever, headache, vomiting, and stiff neck.

IV. Tuberculosis (TB): Transmitted when droplets of an infected persons cough or sneeze are inhaled. Symptoms: Fatigue, mild fever, and a constant cough. The disease may not show up for years after contraction.

treating bacterial infections
Treating Bacterial Infections
  • Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections
  • Antibiotic resistance can happen when a person does not take all of their prescribed medicine.
viral infections
Viral Infections
  • Common cold: Symptoms include sneezing, sore throat, coughing, chest congestion, head aches and muscle aches. Most last three to seven days. Colds spread when a person touches a contaminated object or inhales droplets from a sneeze or a cough.
  • Influenza: Infection of the upper respiratory system. Symptoms: High fever, sore throat, headache, and a cough. Spread same as cold.

Pneumonia: People who have heart disease or are elderly may experience their flu turn into pneumonia.

  • Hepatitis:

Type A: Transmitted through human wastes or contaminated water.

Type B: More severe then type A. Transmitted through blood or sexual contact.

Type C: Transmitted through blood or sexual contact. Type C is the number one reason for liver transplants in the U.S

treatment of viral infections
Treatment of Viral Infections
  • In most cases there are no particular medicine that can cure a viral infection.
  • Best treatments are : rest, a well-balanced diet, and plenty of fluids.
  • There are also many medicines that treat viral symptoms
  • These medicines make a person feel better but do not rid the body of the virus.
when should i see a doctor
When Should I See a Doctor?
  • Extremely sore throat, earache, vomiting, diarrhea, or temperature of 101 F that lasts for more then two days
  • Mucus from your nose or throat is thick and yellow
  • Difficulty breathing, or severe pain anywhere
  • A cut or scrape that does not heal as it should
  • An illness that lasts longer then usual
  • Wash Hands
  • Do not share items that transfer pathogens (towels, eating utensils, cups or hair brushes)
  • Cook and store food properly
  • Avoid close contact with infected individuals
  • Stay home when not feeling well
  • Learn to manage stress in healthful ways
  • Sleep at least 8 hours a night
  • Avoid unhealthful substances. Ex: Drugs