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Data Management, Data Assimilation and Modeling

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  1. Water Availability Data Management, Data Assimilation and Modeling David R. Maidment Director, Center for Research in Water Resources University of Texas at Austin Presented at Subcommittee on Water Availability and Quality National Science and Technology Council Washington DC, April 12, 2007

  2. Water Availability in Texas Water Availability in Australia Water Use in the United States National Monitoring and Modeling System Water Availability

  3. Water Availability in Texas Water Availability in Australia Water Availability in the United States National Monitoring and Modeling System Water Availability

  4. Water Availability in Texas • 1996 Texas drought • Governor Bush asks “how much water do we have? How much are we using? How much do we need?” -- Ooops. No good answers! • 1997 Senate Bill 1 passed by Legislature • Regionalizes water planning in Texas and establishes surface water availability modeling • 2001 Senate Bill 2 passed by Legislature • Establishes groundwater availabilitymodeling and initiates instream flow assessment

  5. Improvements from Senate Bill 1:Water Modeling and Planning • Before Senate Bill 1, water planning was done state-wide by TWDB • SB1 established 14 water planning regional groups, who are now responsible for planning water supply in their area Water Availability Modeling (TNRCC)

  6. Sulphur Brazos Trinity Colorado Rio Grande City of Austin Nueces Improvements from Senate Bill 1: Water Availability Modeling 8000 water right locations 23 main river basins Inform every permit holder of the degree of reliability of their withdrawal during drought conditions (TCEQ)

  7. Water Rights in the Sulphur Basin Water right location Stream gage location Drainage areas delineated from Digital Elevation Models are used to estimate flow at water right locations based on flow at stream gage locations

  8. CRWR Mission for Senate Bill 1 • CRWR (UT Austin) aids in the response to Senate Bill 1 by providing to TNRCC watershed parameters defined from geospatial data for each water right location • These data are input by TCEQ contractors to a Water Rights Assessment Package (developed at TAMU) which determines the % chance that the water will actually be available at that location • TCEQ sends theownerof the water right a letter specifying the availability of water

  9. Water Availability Maps and Charts (from WRAP model output) Plot a graph for a space point Plot a map for a time point Space-Time Datasets Space Time A set of variables ……

  10. Groundwater Availability Models (Modflow)

  11. Texas Summary • A state-wide geospatial data system • Monthly simulation models for surface and groundwater availability for major river basins and aquifers • Challenges • Surface and groundwater are modeled independently • Modeling is not “real-time”

  12. Water Availability in Texas Water Availability in Australia Water Use in the United States National Monitoring and Modeling System Water Availability

  13. Space-Time Datasets CUAHSI Observations Data Model Sensor and laboratory databases

  14. Australia Summary • Prime Minister Howard has established a 10-year, $10 billion plan for “water security” • Includes $480 million for an Australian Water Resources Information System • Rob Vertessy will lead this effort • Focus on water use: “You can’t manage what you don’t measure”

  15. Water Availability in Texas Water Availability in Australia Water Use in the United States National Monitoring and Modeling System Water Availability

  16. Category 1 (10 states) Arkansas, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Vermont Category 2 (12 states) Alabama, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah, Virginia Category 3 (28 states + PR) Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming State Water Use Databases - Survey undertaken with the assistance of USGS water use specialists Monthly data on surface and groundwater with all diversion points known Annual data A mixture Category 1 2 3

  17. Arkansas Site-Specific Water-Use Database ~50,000 points with monthly water withdrawal estimates

  18. Surface and Groundwater Points Surface water: 5,600 points Groundwater: 39,100 points Data are reported to AWSCC in acre-ft per month or year Data are reported to USGSnational summary in MGD

  19. Random sampling: Number of Samples RequiredArkansas, irrigation from groundwater Total use = 5,492,730 MG Desired standard error = 549,273 MG requires 111 samples

  20. National Water-Use Databases EPA SDWIS Public Water Supply Surface Water Intakes (Marilee Horn, USGS) Economic and Population Data (Bureau of Economic Analysis) Industrial wastewater dischargers. (T. Dabolt, EPA)

  21. US Water Use Summary • Water use data varies widely by state • Stratified random sampling is very efficient, especially for irrigation water use from groundwater • Large national datasets of withdrawal and discharge points to surface waters exist at EPA

  22. Water Availability in Texas Water Availability in Australia Water Use in the United States National Monitoring and Modeling System Water Availability

  23. Animation

  24. Water Resource Regions and HUC’s

  25. NHDPlus for Region 17E

  26. NHDPlus Reach Catchments ~ 3km2

  27. Slope Elevation Mean annual flow Corresponding velocity Drainage area % of upstream drainage area in different land uses Stream order Reach Attributes

  28. Groundwater Wells in USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) 1,122,738 wells (CUAHSI catalog not complete yet)

  29. Texas Wells Database (Texas Water Development Board) 132,195 wells

  30. NWIS + Texas wells

  31. Wells in Arizona Arizona Groundwater Site Inventory (ADWR-USGS) Arizona Well Registry (ADWR) 43,016 wells 33,868 wells

  32. NWIS + Arizona wells Build a federated National Wells Information System

  33. Hydrologic Science It is as important to represent hydrologic environments precisely with data as it is to represent hydrologic processes with equations Physical laws and principles (Mass, momentum, energy, chemistry) Hydrologic Process Science (Equations, simulation models, prediction) Hydrologic conditions (Fluxes, flows, concentrations) Hydrologic Information Science (Observations, data models, visualization Hydrologic environment (Dynamic earth)

  34. National Hydrologic Information System The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a geographically distributed network of hydrologic data sources and functions that are integrated using web services so that they function as a connected whole.

  35. Observation Stations Map for the US Ameriflux Towers (NASA & DOE) NOAA Automated Surface Observing System USGS National Water Information System NOAA Climate Reference Network

  36. Observations Catalog Specifies what variables are measured at each site, over what time interval, and how many observations of each variable are available

  37. Point Observations Information Model USGS Data Source Streamflow gages Network Neuse River near Clayton, NC Sites Discharge, stage (Daily or instantaneous) Variables Values 206 cfs, 13 August 2006 {Value, Time, Qualifier} • A data source operates an observation network • A network is a set of observation sites • A site is a point location where one or more variables are measured • A variable is a property describing the flow or quality of water • A value is an observation of a variable at a particular time • A qualifier is a symbol that provides additional information about the value

  38. Locations Variable Codes Date Ranges WaterML and WaterOneFlow STORET Data GetSiteInfo GetVariableInfo GetValues Data NAM NWIS WaterML Data WaterOneFlow Web Service Data Repositories Client EXTRACT TRANSFORM LOAD WaterML is an XML language for communicating water data WaterOneFlow is a set of web services based on WaterML

  39. Data Sources NASA Storet Ameriflux Unidata NCDC Extract NCAR NWIS Transform CUAHSI Web Services Excel Visual Basic ArcGIS C/C++ Load Matlab Fortran Access Java Applications Some operational services

  40. HIS Server and Analyst HIS Server HIS Analyst Implemented at San Diego Supercomputer Center and at academicdepartments and research centers Implemented by individual hydrologic scientists using their own analysis environments Web Services Flexible – any operating system, model, programming language or application Sustainable – industrial strength technology Details of HIS Analyst are here Animation

  41. Data Cube A simple data model Time, T “When” D “Where” Space, L Variables, V “What”

  42. Continuous Space-Time Model – NetCDF (Unidata) Time, T Coordinate dimensions {X} D Space, L Variable dimensions {Y} Variables, V

  43. North American Regional Reanalysis of Climate Evaporation Precipitation Variation during the day, July 2003 NetCDF format mm / 3 hours

  44. Discrete Space-Time Data ModelArcHydro Time, TSDateTime TSValue Space, FeatureID Variables, TSTypeID

  45. Time, T D Space, L Variables, V OpenMI Conceptual Framework Interconnection of dynamic simulation models VALUES €10 million project sponsored by European Commission

  46. Hydrologic Flux Coupler Define the fluxes and flows associated with each hydrovolume Evaporation Precipitation Streamflow Groundwater recharge