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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. َََ وَ حَمَلْنَهُ عَلَىَ ذَاتِ َألوَْاٍٍٍٍح َودُسُرٍ َ تجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا َجَََزاءً ِلمَن كَانَ كُفِِرَ. القمر 13-14. STRUCTURAL JOINTS. IN. POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS. By Hossam Sallam, Ph.D. Zagazig University. Objectives.

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slide1

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

َََ

وَ حَمَلْنَهُ عَلَىَ ذَاتِ َألوَْاٍٍٍٍح َودُسُرٍ َ

تجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا َجَََزاءً ِلمَن كَانَكُفِِرَ

القمر 13-14

slide2

STRUCTURAL JOINTS

IN

POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS

By Hossam Sallam, Ph.D.

Zagazig University

objectives
Objectives

The main goal of this review article is to present a sound background regarding the development of the understanding of the mechanical behavior and the failure modes of the mechanically fastened, snap, bonded, andhybridjoints in polymeric composite materials.

layout
LAYOUT
  • INTRODUCTION

JOINTS ------ COMPOSITES

  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS

Kt ------ FAILURE MODES

  • SNAP JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS

Fusion Bonding for Joining Thermoplastic Matrix Composites

ADHESIVE BONDED SIMILAR/DISSIMILAR MATERIALS.

  • HYBRID JOINTS
introduction
Introduction

STRUCTURAL JOINTS

introduction1
Introduction

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Classification

Of

Composite Materials

W.R.T

Reinforcement Forms

W.R.T

Type of Matrix

  • Particle
  • Polymers
  • Metals
  • Fiber

Discontinuous

  • Ceramics

Continuous

  • Laminate
out line
out line
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS
  • SNAP JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS
  • HYBRID JOINTS
  • CONCLOUSIONS
mechanically fastened joints
MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS

Single lap bolted joint

Double Strap bolted joint

slide10

Tab

Tab

Load

Cell

Rigid

Washer

Strain Gauge

Washer

D

Load Cell

Dw

Nut

Washer

Bolt

W

Specimen

W

(b)

(a)

(c)

Types of Circular Hole in Tensioned FRP Plates

  • OPEN-HOLE TENSION
  • FILLED-HOLE TENSION WITH/WITHOUT A CLAMP-UP LOAD.
  • BOLTED JOINT, BOLT-LOADED HOLE WITH/WITHOUT CLAMP-UP LOAD.
slide11

FAILURE MODESOF

TENSION PLATES

OPEN-HOLE

Fiber Breakage

Matrix Cracking

Delamination

Fiber-MatrixSplitting

slide12

e

P

P

P

PَSO=fult [0.6(e-dH/2)2t] CAN

PَSO=fult(et)/1.2 Euro

PَSO= fult(et) USA

P

P

FAILURE MODESOF

BOLTED JOINTS

sf/sَo= 0.8 Steel

sf/sَo< 0.5 FRP

Net-Tension

sَN= P /([W-dH]t)

Shear-Out

sَSO= PSO/(2et)

Transverse

splitting

Cleavage

Bearing

Pull-out

sَb= P /(dBt)

out line1
out line
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS
  • SNAP JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS
  • HYBRID JOINTS
  • CONCLOUSIONS
slide15

SNAP JOINTS

(a) CompositeTransmissionTower(b) Truss Joint

out line2
out line
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS
  • SNAP JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS
  • HYBRID JOINTS
  • CONCLOUSIONS
slide17

Fusion Bonding Techniques

Bulk Heating

Frictional Heating

Electromagnetic Heating

Two-stage Techniques

Induction Welding

Microwave Heating

Dielectric Heating

Resistance Welding

Hot Plate Welding

Hot Gas Welding

Radiant Welding

Co-consolidation

Hot-melt Adhesives

Dual Resin Bonding

Spin Welding

Vibration Welding

Ultrasonic Welding

Infrared Welding

Focused Infrared Welding

Laser Welding

Solar Energy

bonded joints
BONDED JOINTS

ADHESIVE-1

  • Single lap
  • Double lap
  • Double strap
slide19

BONDED JOINTS

ADHESIVE-2

Stepped lap

Doublestepped lap

Single scarf

Double scarf

slide20

BONDED JOINTS

A

A

ADHESIVE-3

AL–6XN steel

T700 carbon/epoxy

The general geometric parameters for a tongue-and-groove joint.

New design with flat, pointed inserts

Wavy-lap joint main dimensions

prevention of failure in adhesive joints

Peel action

Peeling

Prevention of failure in Adhesive Joints

Bead end (if possible)

Increase area

Increase stiffness

Rivet, bolt or spot weld

slide22

out line

  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS
  • SNAP JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS
  • HYBRID JOINTS
  • CONCLOUSIONS
slide23

HYBRID JOINTS

Retrofitting schemes

slide24

out line

  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS
  • BONDED JOINTS
  • SNAP JOINTS
  • HYBRID JOINTS
  • CONCLOUSIONS
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • All joining methods present advantages and drawbacks, and they may be more or less suitable to particular application depending on its specific requirements.
  • Well-established joining technologies for metallic structures are not directly applicable to FRP.
  • Some adhesives are disposed to degradation by temperature and humidity.
  • Hybrid joints give better static as well as fatigue performance than adhesive joints in composites.