Muscles and Muscle Tissue. 8. Part A. Muscle Overview. Muscle tissue makes up nearly half the body mass. The most distinguishing functional characteristic of muscles is their ability to transform chemical energy ATP into directed mechanical energy
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Muscle tissue makes up nearly half the body mass.
The most distinguishing functional characteristic of muscles is their ability to transform chemical energy ATP into directed mechanical energy
The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
These types differ in structure, location, function, and means of activation
Skeletal and smooth muscle cells are elongated and are called muscle fibers
Muscle contraction depends on two kinds of myofilaments – actin and myosin
Muscle terminology is similar
Sarcolemma – muscle plasma membrane
Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm of a muscle cell
Prefixes – myo, mys, and sarco all refer to muscle
Packaged in skeletal muscles that attach to and cover the bony skeleton
Has obvious stripes called striations
Is controlled voluntarily (i.e., by conscious control)
Contracts rapidly but tires easily
Is responsible for overall body motility
Is extremely adaptable and can exert forces ranging from a fraction of an ounce to over 70 pounds
Key words: skeletal, striated and voluntary
Occurs only in the heart (“blood pump”)
Is striated like skeletal muscle but is not voluntary
Contracts at a fairly steady rate set by the heart’s pacemaker
Neural controls allow the heart to respond to changes in bodily needs
Key words: cardiac, striated and involuntary
Found in the walls of hollow visceral organs, such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiratory passages
Forces food and other substances through internal body channels
It is not striated and is involuntary
Key words: visceral, non striated and involuntary
Excitability, or irritability – the ability to receive and respond to stimuli
Contractility – the ability to shorten forcibly
Extensibility – the ability to be stretched or extended
Elasticity – the ability to recoil and resume the original resting length
Skeletal muscles are responsible for all locomotion
Cardiac muscle is responsible for coursing the blood through the body
Smooth muscle helps maintain blood pressure, and squeezes or propels substances (i.e., food, feces) through organs
Muscles also maintain posture, stabilize joints, and generate heat
Nerves – branches to each fiber
Endomysium –wraps each fiber
Perimysium –wraps fibers into fascicles
Epimysium –wraps fascicles into a muscle
All are continuous with each other and the tendons.
Figure 9.2 (a)
Each muscle is served by one nerve, an artery, and one or more veins
Each skeletal muscle fiber is supplied with a nerve ending that controls contraction
Contracting fibers require continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients via arteries
Wastes must be removed via veins
Fascicles (Bundles of fibers)
Myofibrils (densely packed contractile elements)
Myofilaments (contractile proteins)
Actin (thin filaments)
Myosin (thick filaments)
Figure 9.3 (b)
The smallest contractile unit of a muscle
The region of a myofibril between two successive Z discs
Composed of myofilaments made up of contractile proteins
Myofilaments are of two types – thick and thin
Figure 9.3 (c)
Thick filaments (composed by myosin) – extend the entire length of an A band
Thin filaments (composed by actin) – extend across the I band and partway into the A band
Z-disc – coin-shaped sheet of proteins (connectins) that anchors the thin filaments and connects myofibrils to one another
Figure 9.3 (c, d)
Thick filaments are composed of the protein myosin
Each myosin molecule has a rodlike tail and two globular heads
Tails – two interwoven, heavy polypeptide chains
Heads – two smaller, light polypeptide chains called cross bridges
Figure 9.4 (a)(b)
Thin filaments are chiefly composed of the protein actin
Each actin molecule is a helical polymer of globular subunits called G actin
The subunits contain the active sites to which myosin heads attach during contraction
Tropomyosin and troponin are regulatory subunits bound to actin
Figure 9.4 (c)
Longitudinal section within one sarcomere
Figure 9.4 (d)
Thin filaments slide past the thick ones so that the actin and myosin filaments overlap to a greater degree
In the relaxed state, thin and thick filaments overlap only slightly
Upon stimulation, myosin heads bind to actin and sliding begins
Each myosin head binds and detaches several times during contraction, acting like a ratchet to generate tension and propel the thin filaments to the center of the sarcomere
As this event occurs throughout the sarcomeres, the muscle shortens
In order to contract, a skeletal muscle must:
Be stimulated by a nerve ending
Propagate an electrical current, or action potential, along its sarcolemma
Have a rise in intracellular Ca2+ levels, the final trigger for contraction
Motor = movement
Neuron = nerve cell
Motor neuron releases neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACh).
ACh causes muscle fiber to produce an electrical signal.
Electrical signal causes actin & myosin to move, and this causes muscle to move.
ACh bound to ACh receptors is quickly destroyed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
This destruction prevents continued muscle fiber contraction in the absence of additional stimuli
At rest” = fiber has not received message to move
Actin (thin) attaches to Z-line.
Myosin (thick) does not attach to actin or the Z-line.
Myosin heads are bent back (cocked).
Let’s compare length of sarcomeres:
After contraction, muscle relaxes (back to original length).
Myosin heads pick up ATP & break it apart.
This cocks the head, detaching it from actin.
Now ready to contract again.
Head is Cocked
Cross bridge formation – myosin cross bridge attaches to actin filament
Working (power) stroke – myosin head pivots and pulls actin filament toward M line
Cross bridge detachment – ATP attaches to myosin head and the cross bridge detaches
“Cocking” of the myosin head – energy from hydrolysis of ATP cocks the myosin head into the high-energy state
Contraction of muscle fibers (cells) and muscles (organs) is similar
The two types of muscle contractions are:
Isometric contraction – increasing muscle tension (muscle does not shorten during contraction)
Isotonic contraction – decreasing muscle length (muscle shortens during contraction)
Muscular contraction where the tension developed occurs with no change in length
Otherwise known as static contraction or position.
Improves muscular strength at fixed joint angle
Does not develop aerobic fitness
Can be done anywhere
Examples; rugby scrum, tug of war.
Muscles contact at speed controlled by the performer
Motor unit recruitment is at the speed required for the specific sports activity.
Develops aerobic and anaerobic fitness
Most physical activities are isotonic
Can occur in two ways: concentric and eccentric.
Muscle shortens under tension
Insertion moves towards origin
Occurs in agonist muscle
e.g. Chin-ups – use of bicep brachii in upward phase
Muscle lengthens under tension
Insertion moves away from origin
Occurs in antagonist muscle
Only occurs if the antagonist is acting as a brake to help control the joint movement
E.g. Chin-ups – use of biceps in downward phase.