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Lunchtime Learning Session June 12, 2008 Joe Keranen Joe Eastman. Nemesis Cambodia Testing. Outline. 1. Test Description and Purpose 2. Customer Discussions 3. Results 4. Lessons Learned. Test Description and Purpose. Test Description 3 weeks duration KCTC lane types

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Lunchtime learning session june 12 2008 joe keranen joe eastman

Lunchtime Learning Session

June 12, 2008

Joe Keranen

Joe Eastman

Nemesis Cambodia Testing


1. Test Description and Purpose

2. Customer Discussions

3. Results

4. Lessons Learned

Test description and purpose
Test Description and Purpose

  • Test Description

    • 3 weeks duration

    • KCTC lane types

      • 5 standard lanes (fairly flat) each with a different soil type

      • 3 off road lanes (bumps, potholes, overgrown areas, etc.)

    • Collect data and set parameters on calibration section of lanes

    • On blind areas collect data at predetermined thresholds and give alarms to NVESD for blind scoring

  • Test Purpose

    • 100% probability of detection with low false alarm rates

    • Characterize platform operation and utility on off road lanes

    • Prove system reliability

    • Overseas logistics exercise (shipping, packing, spares, etc.)

    • Engage potential customers in discussions of their operations and needs

    • Collect data from different soil types (clay, loam, sand, sandyclayloam, red laterite, native)



Standard Lanes

230 m

Off Road Lanes

Test description
Test Description

Red Laterite

Test description1
Test Description

Native Dry

Customer discussion highlights
Customer Discussion Highlights

  • Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Marcel)

    • Golden West is based in United States (Los Angeles), non-profit

    • Deminers need a lot of tools in the tool box, take out the right tool for the job (EMI, GPR, Mag, or combination of all of the above)

    • There is a distinction between road clearance and road reduction

      - Road clearance is clearance of 100% of mines

      - Road reduction is clearance of 70-80% of mines, depends on how badly food needs to get to the end of the road

    • Electromagnetic Induction, Ground Penetrating Radar, and Magnetometers are only sensors currently used in mine detection

    • KCTC site was originally built to test chemical vapor (sniffer) sensors but sensors never performed well enough to warrant testing at KCTC

  • Cambodian Mine Action Center (Kinnett)

    • Three types of mine fields in Cambodia

      • Confirmed Mine Field

      • Suspected Mine Field

      • Residual Mine Field

        • APs have been removed by locals but deeper ATs remain

    • Nemesis may work well in Eastern Cambodia (hard roads), not in Western Cambodia (lots of flooding)

    • Eastern part of Cambodia is mostly UXO, Western part mostly mines

    • CMAC currently uses one Japanese flail system, bulldozer with tele-system

    • Average Cambodian deminer can barely read or write

    • Currently problems with mines near tree trunks and on slopes (per JS)

    • Impressed with video, GPS marking (per JS)

Customer discussion highlights cont
Customer Discussion Highlights (cont.)

  • Mines Action Group (UK, Nick)

    • Knowledge of route clearance in Angola (low metal AT mines, No. 8)

    • Also knowledge of ongoing route clearance in South Sudan

    • Typically know what kind of mines you are going after

    • Max Plus system is used for brush cutting and sifting

    • Common practice to set up detectors for specific mines (calibration to specific mine before beginning detection work)

    • Depth information needed with GPR detection alarms on OCU screen

    • A lot of mine strikes are on shoulders of roads (Sudan)

    • Off road lanes at KCTC are more harsh than roads in South Sudan

    • Currently they use a large loop system and push carts with automated marking

    • Overpass wouldn’t be an issue if there were minimal ground pressure (ATs)

    • Deminer needs better images of GPR to call clutter himself, deminer doesn’t necessarily need fully automated discrimination

    • He was impressed with speed of platform (1 kph)

    • He was given 15 km of roads to clear in Sudan, he found mine strike area and focused on that several hundred meters, ran remaining 14 km quickly to assure they got everything

    • May get local knowledge but not all the time

    • They will sometimes chase mines

    • Each situation is different

    • QA done with external sampling

    • Manual deminers chase mines, leave rest of area to dogs or mechanical clearance

Customer discussion highlights cont1
Customer Discussion Highlights (cont.)

  • Waypoint nav, vector driving not practical for the most part

  • In Cambodia less than 1% road clearance, mostly fields

    • Lebanon – no roads

    • Iraq – no roads

    • Sudan – 40% road clearance

    • Angola, no specific numbers but they have a route clearance team there right now

  • Must overlap coverage to assure clearance

  • Physical marking is big with real deminers

  • Tour of CMAC training facility

    • Use large loop EMI for uxo, has audio signal and voltmeter

    • Use Minelab F3 to pinpoint center of uxo, mine

    • Use dogs to detect TNT

    • UXO depths

      • 250 lb bomb – 3 meters

      • 500 lb bomb – 5 meters

      • MK84 – 8 meters, use magnetometer to get that deep

    • 210 current deminers in CMAC

    • CMAC has a survey team that gathers information from locals

    • One week of training required to go after UXO

    • Three weeks required to go after land mines

  • Results targets
    Results - Targets

    TM-46 AT Mine

    Diameter: 305 mm

    Height: 108 mm

    Operating pressure: 120–400 kg (21 kg tilt pressure)

    Weight: 8.6 kg

    Explosive content: 5.7 kg of TNT

    Fuzes: MV-5 pressure, MVM pressure, MVSh-46 tilt rod

    TM-57 AT Mine

    Diameter: 316 mm

    Height: 102 mm

    Operating pressure: 120–400 kg or 21 kg tilt.

    Weight: 8.47 kg

    Explosive content: 6.34 kg of TNT,

    TGA (RDX/TNT/Aluminium) or MS (RDX/TNT/Aluminium/Wax)

    Fuse: MVZ-57 pressure,MVSh-57 tilt with MD019 detonator

    TYPE 69 Bounding Fragmentation AP Mine

    Diameter: 60 mm

    Height: 168 mm

    Operating pressure: 120–400 kg or 21 kg tilt.

    Weight: 1.35 kg

    Explosive content: 104.9 g of TNT

    Fuse: pull/pressure-actuated containing a spring-loaded, cocked firing pin

    Results roc curves
    Results – ROC Curves

    Standard Lanes 1 - 4

    Standard Lane 0

    Lane Types = Loam, Sand, Red Laterite, Sandy/Clay/Loam

    Scoring Halo = 0.25 m

    17 TM - 46 depths 2.5 -30 cm

    9 TYPE 69 depths 2.5 -30 cm

    Coverage = 1550 m^2

    Lane Type = Clay

    Scoring Halo = 0.4 m

    4 TM - 46 depths 2.5 -30 cm

    2 TYPE 69 depths 2.5 -30 cm

    Coverage = 175 m^2

    Results tm 46 images
    Results: TM - 46 Images

    GPR - XY

    GPR - XZ

    GPR - YZ

    EMI – F8

    EMI - Mono


    2.5 cm

    12 cm

    20 cm

    30 cm

    Lessons learned
    Lessons Learned

    • Lots of potential discrepancies between blind scoring performance and true operational performance.

      1. EMI can sense mines off to the side

      - Good operationally, potentially bad for blind scoring

    TM-46 (s)

    Pass 1

    Pass 2

    Type 69 (s)

    Lessons learned1


    Lessons Learned

    2. Need to better incorporate roll and pitch into GPS position.

    GPS Antenna


    3. Heading from NCU very accurate, especially on curves, but spiky from time to time.

    Lessons learned cont
    Lessons Learned (cont.)

    • Clustering of mine with clutter

    Decision Statistic Map



    TM - 46

    TYPE 69


    • GPR false alarms when encountering berms

    Berm and Non-Berm Channels

    GPR Alarms


    Gpr Array


    Lessons learned cont1
    Lessons Learned (cont.)

    • Have to have sensor coverage on OCU

    Lessons learned cont2
    Lessons Learned (cont.)

    • Investigate noise in gpr due to raising / lowering arms

    Noise Issue

    Noisy raw data

    minus normal raw data

    • Lots of work making alarm GPS locations accurate

      - For scoring purposes only

      - Physical marking more important for actual demining


    • Need to research how to statistically set thresholds

    • Create better detection display (different GPR views, GPS coverage, etc.)

    • Excellent job by Eastman, Wetzel, and Miller deciding what to be sent in first shipment and what to be sent in second shipment.

    • When testing overseas it’s a good idea to have a spare person in addition to spare hardware