Enlightenment. Changes in Government . 17.1 The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment (Mid 1700’s). -“Age of Reason” Begins in England. Why? -Five core concepts of reason for all aspects of life for enlightenment thinkers: Reason Natural Laws ( rules governed by reason )
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Changes in Government
“Leviathan” (1651) was famous work. Outlook?
“Social contract” concept
Advocate for absolute monarchy.Thomas Hobbesp. 545
“Change the way of thinking”
Banned by many for promoting new ideas.Diderot
Civilization corrupted/not enlightened b/c the strongest ended up taking advantage of the weak=freedoms lost
“The Social Contract” 1762 different from Hobbes. Contract among people nobility/titles wrong
Only freely elected governments can impose minimal controls on citizens
The General Will (what is in the best interest of the people)Rousseau
-reformed government and some laws
-Charter of rights for nobles
However; Catherine is viewed as a ruthless absolute leader – repressed peasants, expanded Russian boarders via war with Turkey, partitioned Poland with Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772-1795 (Poland did not return until 1919)