enlightenment n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Enlightenment PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Enlightenment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Enlightenment. Changes in Government . 17.1 The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment (Mid 1700’s). -“Age of Reason” Begins in England. Why? -Five core concepts of reason for all aspects of life for enlightenment thinkers: Reason Natural Laws ( rules governed by reason )

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Enlightenment' - noma

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript


Changes in Government

17 1 the enlightenment
17.1 The Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment
the enlightenment mid 1700 s
The Enlightenment (Mid 1700’s)
  • -“Age of Reason”
  • Begins in England. Why?
  • -Five core concepts of reason for all aspects of life for enlightenment thinkers:
    • Reason
    • Natural Laws (rules governed by reason)
    • Happiness
    • Progress
    • Liberty
thomas hobbes p 545
Life without laws or control is, “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”

“Leviathan” (1651) was famous work. Outlook?

“Social contract” concept

Advocate for absolute monarchy.

Thomas Hobbesp. 545
john locke p 545
Gov’t to protect rights

More positive view/favored self-gov’t.

Tabula Rasa

Gov’t. responsibilities

-obligation to people it governs

Natural rights




“Two Treatises on Government”

John Lockep.545
  • Radical thought? What did Locke feel about gov’t that did not fulfill its obligation?
  • Is one more correct than the other? Why?
  • Which person is more in line with the values of the US?
  • Which was a product of his times, and which was more progressive?
french philosophes
French Philosophes
  • New ideas in France b/c of British Revolution which challenged status quo.
  • Ideas spread in salons of Paris
  • British inspiration  France  Rest of Europe
  • 4 Main: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau
encyclopedia definition of philosophe
“Encyclopedia” definition of philosophe
  • …trampling on prejudice, tradition, universal consent, authority, in a word all that enslaves most minds, dares to think for himself, to go back and search for the clearest general principles, to admit nothing except on the testimony of his experience and his reason.
  • http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture9a.html
“On the Spirit of Laws” (1748)

Separation of powers (legislative, executive, judicial)

“Power should be a check to power” ------> checks and balances

  • Criticized the Church, Government, Establishment through parody, plays, books.
    • Targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats
  • “All brothers in god” from Treatise on Toleration
  • Imprisoned and exiled
  • “My trade…is to say what I think.”
The Encyclopedia spread ideas of the enlightenment/salons to many others. (1751-1772)

“Change the way of thinking”

Banned by many for promoting new ideas.

PERSONAL freedoms

Civilization corrupted/not enlightened b/c the strongest ended up taking advantage of the weak=freedoms lost

“The Social Contract” 1762 different from Hobbes. Contract among people nobility/titles wrong

Only freely elected governments can impose minimal controls on citizens

The General Will (what is in the best interest of the people)

17 2 spread of enlightenment
17.2 Spread of Enlightenment
  • “Never have new ideas had such rapid circulation at such long distance”
idea of social sciences led to new studies
Idea of Social Sciences Led to New Studies
  • Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire economics
  • “Wealth of Nations”: Gov’t has 3 roles
    • Protect from invasion
    • Police
    • Public works
why is it important
Why Is It Important?
  • Their theories ended up inspiring French/American Revolutions.
  • 1. Progress (i.e.: science, medicine, reason, social improvements)
  • 2. Secular outlook (began to explain “God’s mysteries” w/ science) Questioned Church
  • 3. Emphasis on the individual
  • 4. Led to increase in reading and learning throughout Europe.
enlightened despots
Enlightened Despots
  • Catherine the Great (Russia) 1762
  • Followed Peter the Great, married Tsar Peter III

-reformed government and some laws

-abolished torture

-religious tolerance

-Charter of rights for nobles

However; Catherine is viewed as a ruthless absolute leader – repressed peasants, expanded Russian boarders via war with Turkey, partitioned Poland with Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772-1795 (Poland did not return until 1919)

  • What was the main idea of the enlightenment? Who would have a problem with that? Which group may not have been represented in these ideas? Why?