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Chapter 7: Exponents and Exponential Functions

Chapter 7: Exponents and Exponential Functions

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Chapter 7: Exponents and Exponential Functions

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  1. Chapter 7:Exponents and Exponential Functions

  2. 7.1Apply Exponent Properties Involving Products

  3. Exponents • Exponent – the number of times the base is multiplied by itself • EX: 35

  4. 1) Product of Powers Property • When you multiply powers with like bases, ADD the exponents. • EX: 56· 53

  5. EX: • Simplify the expression. Write your answer using exponents. • (-7)2(-7)8 • x2·x6·x

  6. 2) Power of a Power Property • When you raise a power to a power, MULTIPLY exponents. • EX: (x)3

  7. EX: • Simplify the expression. Write your answer using exponents. • (42)7 • [(-2)4]5 • [(m + 1)6]3

  8. 3) Power of a Product Property • When a product is raised to a power, raise each factor to the power. • EX: (9xy)2

  9. EX: • Simplify each expression. Write your answer using exponents. • (20·17)3

  10. EX: Simplify each expression. • (-4x)2 • -(4x)2 • (2x3)2· x4 • (-10x6)2 · x2 • (3x5)3(2x7)2

  11. Order of Magnitude • The order of magnitude of a quantity is the power of 10 that is closest to the actual value of the quantity. • An estimate. • EX: 91,000 ≈ 100,000 ≈ 105

  12. EX: • A box of staples contains 104 stables. How many stables do 102 boxes contain?

  13. EX: • There are about 1 billion grains of sand in 1 cubic foot of sand. Use order of magnitude to find about how many grains of sand are in 25 million cubic feet of sand.

  14. 7.2Apply Exponent Properties involving quotients

  15. 1) Quotient of Powers Property • When dividing powers with like bases, subtract the exponents. • EX:

  16. EX: • Simplify the expression. Write your answer using exponents.

  17. 2) Power of a Quotient Property • When a quotient is raised to a power, raise both the numerator and the denominator to the power and cancel if possible. • EX: (3/2)7

  18. EX: • Simplify the expression. • (-7/x)2 • (x2/4y)2 • (- 5/y)3 • (2s/3t)3· (t5/16) • (- 5/4)4 • (3x2/3y3)2

  19. EX: • The order of magnitude of the brightness of the Milky Way is 1036 watts. The order of magnitude of the brightness of a gamma ray burster is 1045 watts. How many times brighter is the gamma ray burster than the Milky Way? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2ESs1rPO_A

  20. 7.3define and use zero and negative exponents

  21. Zero Power • Anything raised to the zero power is ONE. • EX: 40 = 1 • WHY:

  22. Negative Exponents • When you have a negative exponent in the numerator: • Put it in the denominator and make it positive. • EX: 4-3 • When you have a negative exponent in the denominator: • Put it in the numerator and make it positive. • EX: • NOTE: Negative exponents represent very small numbers.

  23. EX: Evaluate the expression. • Write your answer using only positive exponents.

  24. EX: Simplify the expression. • Write your answer using only positive exponents.

  25. EX: • The mass of one peppercorn is about 10-2 gram. About how many peppercorns are in a box containing 1kilogram of peppercorns?

  26. 7.4Write and graph exponential growth functions

  27. Exponential Functions • An exponential function is a function in the form of: y=abx • EX: y = 2·3x • They are nonlinear functions. • They have graphs that are curved NOT straight lines.

  28. Exponential Function Table

  29. To write a rule for a function table: • 1) Decide what value each y-value is being multiplied by. • This is b. • 2) Find the value of y when x=0. • This is a. • 3) Fill in a and b into y=abx.

  30. EX: Write a rule for the function.

  31. EX: Write a rule for the function.

  32. Exponential Growth • When a quantity increases by the same percent over equal time intervals. • EX: Each year the value of an antique car increases by 50%. • Exponential growth is different from linear growth because linear growth increases by the same amount each time interval, not by the same percent.

  33. Exponential Growth Model • a is the initial amount • (1 + r) is the growth factor • r is the growth rate (% written as a decimal) • t is the time period

  34. EX: • The owner of an original copy of a 1938 comic book sold it at an auction in 2005. The owner bought the comic book for $55 in 1980. The value of the comic book increased at a rate of 2.8% per year. • A) Write a function that models the value of the comic book over time. • B) What was the approximate value of the comic book at the time of the auction in 2005? Round your answer to the nearest dollar.

  35. Compound Interest • Interest earned on both an initial investment and on previously earned interest. • EX: You put $125 in a savings account that earns 2% interest compounded yearly. What will the balance in your account be after 5 years?

  36. 7.5Write and graph exponential decay functions

  37. EX: Write a rule for the function.

  38. Exponential Decay • When a quantity decreases by the same percent over equal time periods. • EX: The number of acres of forests in the U.S. decreases by 0.5% each year.

  39. Exponential Decay Model • a is the initial amount • (1-r) is the decay factor • r is the decay rate • t is the time period

  40. EX: • A farmer bought a tractor in 1999 for $30,000. The value of the tractor has been decreasing at a rate of 18% per year. • Write a function that models the value of the tractor over time. • What was the approximate value of the tractor in 2005?

  41. Exponential Decay vs. Exponential Growth