Nematodes • The four main Nematodes that we will concentrate on are: • Ascaris • Pinworm • Hookworm • Trichina
Signs & Symptoms: Persistent cough Shortness of breath Wheezing Vague abdominal pain Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea or bloody stools Signs & Symptoms: Severe abdominal pain Fatigue Vomiting Weight loss A worm in vomit or stool A worm emerging from nose or mouth Ascaris Worms The severity of the symptoms depends on how many worms you have and how long you have had them.
Preventing Ascaris Infection • The best defense is good hygiene and common sense. Follow these tips to avoid infection: • Practice good hygiene. • Use care when traveling.
Pinworm • Signs & Symptoms: • Itching around anus or vagina • Upset stomach • Loss of Appetite • Irritability • Restlessness • Insomnia
Pinworms Cont’d • Can be prevented by having good personal hygiene. • That said, it is more common in children than adults. • Infection is spread by ingesting the eggs, not necessarily in food.
Pinworm, Cont’d • Adult pinworms reside in the intestine, and attach to the intestinal wall. • Their eggs are not released in the feces, but instead they crawl and lay egg around the anus. This causes the skin to itch. • When scratched the eggs are caught under fingernails and then transmitted to anyone in contact with the infected hand. • Prevention: WASH YOUR HANDS -- ALWAYS!!
Hookworms • Signs & Symptoms: • Anemia (low blood iron) • Bloody sputum (spit) • Signs of intestinal irriation • General ill health
Hookworms, cont’d • Recall they enter through the skin around your toes. • So to prevent them: • Wear socks or shoes, or both!
Trichina • Signs & Symptoms: • History of having eaten rare or uncooked pork (bear and other wild carnivores or omnivores) • Abdominal Discomfort • Cramping • Diarrhea • Muscle Pain (especially muscle pain with breathing, chewing, or using large muscles) • Fever
Trichina, Cont’d • Prevention: • Cook your pig products like your life depends on it. Because it might!