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PSYC 1000 PowerPoint Presentation

PSYC 1000

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PSYC 1000

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  1. PSYC 1000 Lecture 39

  2. Egocentric advice?

  3. Adult Cognitive Development • Intelligence • Fluid intelligence shows greater decline with age (decrease in processing speed) • Age-related gains in wisdom – expertise in fundamental practices of life • Environmental stimulation can maintain high levels of cognitive abilities • Selective optimization with compensation (Paul & Margaret Baltes)

  4. Adulthood- Cognitive Changes Verbal scores are stable with age Nonverbal scores decline with age Verbal scores Nonverbal scores • Age and Different Aspects of IQ • Verbal & Nonverbal (Kaufman et al, 1989). • Crystallized & Fluid • Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills increase with age • Ability to reason quickly, abstractly decreases during late adulthood Intelligence (IQ) score 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 20 25 35 45 55 65 70 Age group

  5. Adult Cognitive Development • Memory • Age-related decline in memory – primarily affects the encoding, storage, and retrieval of new information • Possible self-fulfilling effects of believing your memory will be poor • General memory loss different from development of Alzheimer’s disease

  6. Adulthood- Physical Changes • Incidence of Dementia by Age

  7. Acquiring Language • The ability to learn language is biologically based • Expression of language dependent on culture and environment

  8. Acquiring Language • First step in language acquisition is distinguishing sound contrasts that are important for meaning • Up until 8 months old, infants can distinguish phonemes that are not specific to their native language • Environmental influences on acquiring language • Child-directed speech (aka motherese/parentese) refers to exaggerated high-pitched intonation • Sound patterns help to keep attention to speech

  9. Acquiring Language • Learning word meanings increases at rapid rate around 18 months (naming explosion) • Acquisition of grammar • Noam Chomsky – innate mental structures facilitate comprehension and production of language • Dan Slobin – innate constraints involved in learning a particular language • Language-making capacity – involves telegraphic speech, extension, and over-regularization

  10. Social Development • Social development • How individual’s social interactions and expectations change over time • Development not independent from cultural and environmental aspects • Basic Trust (Erik Erikson) • Sense that world is predictable and trustworthy • Formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers • Self-Concept • Sense of identity and personal worth

  11. Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development

  12. 1st Year University Student Life Goals

  13. Child Social Development • Socialization • Lifelong process through which an individual’s behaviour patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform those regarded as desirable in a particular society • Cultural and generational differences regarding what constitutes desirable behaviour • Process involves many people but family is most important in basic responsiveness to others