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BASROC and CONFORM. Roger Barlow Instrumentation workshop 11 th April 2008. BASROC. British Accelerator Science Radiation and Oncology Consortium Universities + laboratories + hospitals + industry Goal is establishment of UK hadron therapy centres using FFAG technology

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basroc and conform


Roger Barlow

Instrumentation workshop

11th April 2008

  • British Accelerator Science Radiation and Oncology Consortium
  • Universities + laboratories + hospitals + industry
  • Goal is establishment of UK hadron therapy centres using FFAG technology
  • UK lags behind France, Germany, Switzerland, US
  • Difficulty with costs: proton accelerators are expensive
  • nsFFAG should be smaller and cheaper than conventional machines
proton therapy
Proton therapy

Irradiate with protons of energy 50-250 MeV such that they stop in the tumour.

No exposure behind the tumour.

Small exposure before tumour (Bragg peak maximum).

Small spot size (mm) – can ‘paint’ dose with 3D raster scan

Energy loss damages DNA more effectively than X rays

Evidence that Carbon nuclei may be even more effective!

They’re expensive… but effective


Fixed Field (like a cyclotron)

B varies with space but not in time

Particles experience greater field as energy increases (like a synchrotron)

Cyclotron currents at Synchrotron energies



B constant, R varies


Low energies


R varies slightly

B varies with R but not t

High currents

High energies

Rapid acceleration


R constant, B varies

Magnets cycle

Low currents

ffag frequencies
FFAG frequencies

As particle energy increases:

v increases T falls  f increases

L increases T increases  f falls

For cyclotrons these cancel exactly

For FFAGs these may cancel approximately. May get away with constant RF frequency

Or can scan using low Q Finemet cavities. Go from CW to pulsed operation – high frequency and high duty cycle




properties and uses
Properties and Uses

Hadron therapy

Muon acceleration

Proton drivers

Rapid acceleration

DC magnets

High duty cycle

High Rep rate

Variable energy extraction

Large acceptance

ffag energies
FFAG energies

Increase in p= increase in B x increase in R

How big an increase in B can we manage?

  • Magnet design
  • Lattice

Realistic – factor 2: Optimistic – factor 5

How big an increase in R can we manage?

Realistic – factor 1: Optimistic – factor 2


Conventional (scaling) FFAGs:

B( R)Rk

No Chromaticity:

Focussing scales with momentum

Constant tune

resonances avoidable

Nonscaling FFAGs:


Focussing changes with momentum

resonances unavoidable but harmless(?)

More compact aperture

More compact ring (all magnets bending)

Never been built!

1 st project conform
1st Project: CONFORM

CONFORM - the COnstruction of a Non-scaling FFAG for Oncology, Research and Medicine

  • Build world’s first nsFFAG: EMMA
  • Design an nsFFAG for hadron therapy: PAMELA
  • Look for other applications for nsFFAGs

£5.6 M funded through the Basic Technology Programme


Electron Machine with Many Applications

World’s first non-scaling FFAG

Accelerates electrons from 10 to 20 MeV in 16 turns

42x2 Quads

Off-axis for bending

Major components ordered

Build starts summer 08

Commissioning Summer 09

  • Study effect of ions on cells (Surrey)
  • High current proton accelerators for ADSR
  • Muon accelerator for neutrino factory/muon collider
  • High current proton accelerators for muon and neutron sources
the adsr

Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor

Reactor Core


Protons ~1 GeV


Neutron multiplication factor typically k=0.98

Spallation Target

adsr properties
ADSR properties
  • Manifestly inherently safe: switch off the accelerator and the reactor stops
  • Uses unenriched 238U or 232Th as fuel
  • Thorium has very nice properties: proliferation-resistant and short lived wastes
  • Large flux of neutrons can transmute waste from conventional reactors (especially Pu)

Workshop May 7th at Daresbury

accelerator requirements
Accelerator requirements

Proton Energy ~ 1 GeV

For 1GW thermal power:

  • Need 3 1019 fissions/sec (200 MeV/fission)
  • 6 1017 spallation neutrons/sec (k=0.98 gives 50 fissions/neutron)
  • 3 1016 protons/sec (20 spallation neutrons each)

Current 5 mA. Power = 5 MW

High current rules out synchrotron

Compare: PSI proton cyclotron:

590 MeV, 72 MeV injection

2mA, 1MW


3 stage FFAGs at 120Hz

0.1 – 2.5 MeV

2.5 – 20 MeV ( ½)

20 – 150 MeV (?)

Current ~1 nA

‘ADS demonstrator’

Aim: study neutron production


Protons up to 250 MeV, Carbon ions up to 400 MeV/nucleon

Designs being considered

Goal is design we can take to MRC/NHS/Charities for funding at ~£50M

  • Injection and extraction are difficult
  • Successive orbits are close together
  • Gaps are small
  • If we can break symmetry – racetrack instead of circle – life gets a lot easier
  • Even so, the fewer rings the better


  • Accelerate proton and carbon
  • Dose rate 2-10 Gy/minute
  • Voxel size 4x4x4 to 10x10x10 mm
  • ~100 pulses per voxel to give dose control
  • Cycle 100-1000 Hz
  • Treatment time ~300 sec
treatment scenario
Treatment Scenario

Deliver doses at ~100 Hz

Scan in 2D position through gantry and beamline magnets, and in energy(=depth). Order not yet fixed

Need to reject pulses if patient alignment wrong or if dose already reached. (We have plenty of pulses, not a problem)

Need to know WHAT is being delivered and WHERE it is being delivered and WHERE you want it

Maybe 1+ GeV protons for tomography and 400 MeV/u Carbon for therapy?

and so
And so

… we need Instrumentation ideas