DNA and RNA. Ch 11. DNA. To know how genes work we must know what they are made of. Who helped to discover DNA?. Griffin (1928) discovered Transformation (genetic information transferred) through mouse experiment
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(virus that eats bacteria)
to discover that the genetic material in the virus was the DNA
Now we know that genes are made of DNA- but how does DNA give us all that info???
We still don’t know how DNA was arranged!!
The total length of DNA present in one adult human is the equivalent distance from the earth to the sun and back.
The result of replication is two new strands of DNA exactly like the original!
***The production of mRNA from DNA happens in a process called transcription.
2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): makes up ribosome
3. Transfer RNA (tRNA): transfers each amino acid (a.a.) to the ribosome
Each piece of tRNA only attaches to one and only one specific amino acid attached to a 3 letter Anticodon.
Prokaryotic cells: occurs in the cytoplasm
Eukaryotic cells: occurs in the nucleus
Codon: 3 letter combination on the mRNA strand that codes for a specific amino acid.
Remember – proteins are one type of organic compound (made up of polypeptides of amino acids)
2) Each tRNA molecule brings a specific amino acid which then connect together to form an amino acid chain.
A codon chart allows us to know what amino acid a tRNA molecule will bring according to the 3 nucleotide sequence on the mRNA strand.
DNA—mRNA—tRNA—PROTEIN ( Cytosol )
DNA—mRNA—tRNA--PROTEIN ( ribosomes) -
The same for slugs, bugs, potatoes, tomatoes and every other living thing!