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  2. GEOGRAPHY • Russia is the world’s largest country at 17.1 million square km • Only about 7% of the Russian steppes in the south is fertile • Russia has many rivers but no natural ocean ports, and many of its leaders have launched wars to gain sea access • It lacks natural borders, enabling many foreign invasions

  3. PRE-KIEVAN RUSSIA • Norman Varangians first entered Slavic lands around 800 C.E. • In 862, the Slavs invited Rurik the Rus to rule Novgorod • Rurik’s son Oleg conquered the city of Kiev in 882

  4. KIEVAN RUS • Kiev gained power as a trade center along the Dnieper River • Prince Sviatoslav consolidated the city’s control over the surrounding regions in the late 10th century • Prince Vladimir introduced Eastern Orthodoxy as the official religion of the Kievan state in 988

  5. KIEVAN RUS • Prince Jaroslav • introduced Russia’s first legal code and • encouraged Russian art and architecture • Kiev was divided into competing principalities ruled by each of his sons after his death in 1054 • Kiev spent roughly the next 200 years in civil turmoil before being conquered by the Mongols in 1240

  6. MONGOL RULE • The Mongols administered Russia through the Rurikov princes who collected tribute on their behalf • Under Moscow’s leadership, Russia earned its independence from Mongol rule in 1480

  7. MUSCOVITE RUSSIA • Moscow first rose to power in the 14th century under Prince VasiliI • In 1326, Moscow became home to the seat of the metropolitan, making it the religious capital of Russia • Prince Vasili II defeated a Mongol campaign to depose him in 1452, making Moscow effectively independent • Prince Ivan III tripled the size of the Muscovite state

  8. IVAN THE TERRIBLE (R. 1547-1584) • Ivan IV took the title ‘‘Tsar of All Russia’’ in 1547 • reformed the government and military, reducing • the nobility’s corruption and class privileges • He imposed state oversight on the Orthodox Church and • reduced its wealth and power

  9. IVAN THE TERRIBLE (R. 1547-1584) • Ivan IV conquered khanates to Russia’s east but failed to obtain Baltic access through Livonia • In 1565, he launched a bloody campaign of political terror against the nobles known as the Oprichnina • Ivan IV was succeeded by Theodore

  10. THE TIME OF TROUBLES (1598-1613) • Theodore’s regent Boris Godunov effectively controlled Russia during and after Theodore’s reign • The Rurikov line ended with Theodore, creating a power vacuum and encouraging false heirs (False Dimitris) supported by Poland • Famine led to peasant uprisings and mass emigration • Of course, Poland and Sweden attacked! • In 1613, a council of nobles elected Michael Romanov tsar

  11. PETER THE GREAT (R. 1689-1725) • Imperial Russia cycled between periods of reform and counter-reform • Peter I assumed the throne after deposing his half-sister and regent, Sophia • Peter modernized Russian culture and government after the model of Western Europe • He reformed the military and expanded the navy, allowing Russia to defeat Sweden in the Great Northern War

  12. CATHERINE THE GREAT (R. 1762-1796) • Catherine II assumed the throne after nearly forty years of political turmoil • She was • inspired by Enlightenment thinkers • but did not substantially reform Russia’s laws • After putting down Pugachev’s peasant rebellion, Catherine reorganized Russia’s regional governments • Catherine divided and annexed Poland alongside Prussia and Austria in 1772, 1794, and 1795

  13. PAUL I (R. 1796-1801) • Paul I sought to undo Catherine’s policies • He implemented primogeniture • where the ruler’s eldest son was heir to the throne • In 1801, Paul I was assassinated in a palace coup

  14. ALEXANDER I (R. 1801-1825) • Alexander was shaped by both conservative and liberal Influences • Alexander I • repealed his father’s more reactionary decisions • but failed to implement reforms of serfdom and Autocracy • He repelled Napoleon’s invasion in May 1812 and began to pursue more conservative social policies thereafter

  15. NICHOLAS I (R. 1825-1855) • Nicholas I crushed the liberal-minded Decembrist Revolt • He consolidated political power in the hands of the tsar, bypassing the Council of State • Russificationpolicies were implemented in line with the doctrine of ‘‘Official Nationality’’ --(orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality) • The tsar’s decision to enter the Crimean War deprived Russia of its dominant position in the peninsula

  16. ALEXANDER II (R. 1855-1881) • Alexander II was a liberal ruler who introduced elected regional legislatures called zemstvos • On March 3, 1861, he abolished serfdom in Russia • The radical Will of the People assassinated him in 1881

  17. ALEXANDER III • Alexander III • revived the doctrine of ‘‘Official Nationality’’ • and implemented reactionary policies • His Russification policies discriminated against non-Orthodox Russians

  18. NICHOLAS II • Nicholas II continued the programs and Russificationpolicies of his father • He lost a war with Japan over Russian influence in Manchuria

  19. REVOLUTION OF 1905 • Liberals petitioned Nicholas II for reform while Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries pursued violence • On January 22, 1905, guards shot into a crowd of protesters in St. Petersburg, killing 130 on Bloody Sunday • Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, establishing an elected Duma that was ineffective

  20. REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 • Russians protested food shortages during World War I • Nicholas II abdicated on March 15, 1917 • The Provisional Government led Russia until the Bolshevik coup on November 8 • Its authority was undermined by the Petrograd Soviet and monarchist opponents

  21. MARXISM-LENINISM • Marx’s theory of historical materialism argues that human society is determined by its economic structure • Communism is the highest stage of economic development • Unlike Marx, Lenin argued that an elite vanguard had to lead the revolution and oversee the state

  22. RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR (1918-1921) • White army (conservatives) went to war with the Bolsheviks • War Communism was imposed to mobilize the economy • The Supreme Economic Council requisitioned and rationed all consumer goods and production

  23. RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR (1918-1921) • The U.S.S.R. was established on December 30, 1922 . It consisted of: • Russian, • Ukrainian, • Belorussian, • and TranscaucasianSoviets • The New Economy Policy was introduced in 1921 • It permitted limited free market activity to allow Russia’s economy to recover after the civil war

  24. JOSEPH STALIN (1927-1953) • Stalin replaced the NEP with ‘‘five-year plans’’ setting production goals for the entire economy • The first three five-year plans industrialized Russia and collectivized its agriculture at great human cost • In the 1930s, Stalin carried out a purge of party leaders • The NKVD secret police arrested 7 million Soviet citizens • Stalin introduced a new constitution in 1936

  25. WORLD WAR II • Stalin signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany dividing Europe into spheres of influences • The U.S.S.R. occupied parts of Poland, the Balticsand Moldavia after Germany invaded Poland in 1939 • Germany invaded the U.S.S.R. on June 22, 1941 • Hitler’s forces launched two more offensives in 1942 and 1943 before being expelled from Soviet territory in 1944 • Allied leaders held conferences at Yalta and Potsdam • Stalin won a sphere of influence in east-central Europe

  26. POST-WAR • Soviet troops occupied east-central Europe and established Communist regimes there • Comeconand Warsaw Pact formalized the Soviet bloc • Stalin persecuted Jews and intelligentsia • The Soviet economy recovered from the war quickly, aided by forced reparations from former Axis countries • After Stalin’s death in 1953, the Soviet elite became focused on their self-interest rather than ideology

  27. THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA (1953-1964) • Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s totalitarian rule and initiated a brief cultural ‘thaw’ • He sent Soviet troops into Hungary in 1956 after uprisings in Poland and Budapest • The U.S.S.R. launched Sputnik I in October 1957 • Economic growth began to slow during the sixth and seventh Five-Year Plans • Khrushchev resigned under pressure from Brezhnev

  28. THE BREZHNEV ERA (1964-1982) • Brezhnev • reversed Khrushchev’s reforms • and cracked down on public dissent & samizdat • He passed the Third Soviet Constitution in 1977 • The economy experienced decline and consumer shortages • The Brezhnev Doctrine declared Soviet intentions to defend the Communist bloc by military force • Brezhnev militarily suppressed the 1968 Prague Spring • Dissident movements began to emerge in the Soviet bloc

  29. THE BREZHNEV ERA II • The United States and USSR signed several disarmament treaties from 1968 to 1979 during a period of détente

  30. THE BREZHNEV ERA II • HELSINKI ACCORDS (1975) • 34 European and American signatories, including the Soviet Union • Set out basic human rights provisions • Inspired movements such as • Czech Charter 77 • and Polish Solidarity, which demanded that their regimes honor the accords • BUT … Détente ended with the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

  31. TRANSITIONAL LEADERSHIP • Yuri Andropov • died in office after 15 months • Konstantin Chernenko • died in office after 13 months • Both leaders continued Brezhnev’s policies

  32. MIKHAIL GORBACHEV • Gorbachev introduced • demokratizatsiya, • perestroika, and • glasnost, allowing some free market activity and democracy • He also renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine of upholding communism in eastern Europe through military force

  33. PERESTROIKA • Perestroika loosened central control over the political and economic system • The Law on State Enterprise decentralized state planning • The Law on Cooperatives permitted limited enterprise • Foreign trade and investment was permitted

  34. GLASNOST • Glasnost increased party and state transparency • Censorship laws were relaxed, encouraging media investigations into corruption and state crimes

  35. DEMOKRATIZATSIYA • Demokratizatsiyaincreased party officials’ accountability • Multicandidate elections were held and later expanded to multiparty elections

  36. THE COLLAPSE OF THE U.S.S.R. • Gorbachev’s reforms hurt the Soviet economy and undermined the party’s monopoly on political power • The summer and fall of 1989 brought a wave of anticommunist revolts sweeping through East-Central Europe • Internal nationalist movements challenged Soviet control

  37. THE COLLAPSE OF THE U.S.S.R. • Lithuania declared itself independent in March 1990 • Conservatives launched a coup in August 1991 but were defeated by popular opposition led by Yeltsin • After the coup failed, all remaining Soviet Republics seceded from the U.S.S.R.-----including Russia itself • Gorbachev signed the Belavezha Accords dissolving the Soviet Union in December 1991

  38. LEVELS OF TRANSITION FROM COMMUNISM (CLAUS OFFE) • Designing policies to govern the use of valuable resources • Restructuring political and economic government institutions • Reformulating national identity following the dissolution of Russia’s once multinational state

  39. POLITICAL TRANSITION • Conflict between President Yeltsin and a conservative Dumaled to a constitutional crisis in 1993 • Yeltsin won the standoff and passed a new constitution in December with extensive presidential powers

  40. POLITICAL TRANSITION • The constitution provided for a bicameral legislature composed of the • Federal Council and • Duma • Single-member Duma seats were eliminated in 2007 in favor of PR with a 7% threshold • The Communists and hard-right Liberal Democrats performed well electorally until 2000 • United Russia has dominated politics since 2000

  41. SOCIAL TRANSITION • Traditional gender roles have been revived • Russian citizens remain apathetic towards civil society and were dissatisfied with democracy under Yeltsin • The Russian military fought a separatist movement in Chechnya from 1994 to 1996 • The second Chechen war began in 1999 and has mainly taken the form of Islamic terrorist attacks

  42. ECONOMIC TRANSITION • All economic institutions were rapidly privatized under ‘‘shock therapy’’ • Most state-owned companies were bought by powerful oligarchs • Shock therapy resulted in hyperinflation, high unemployment, and GDP contraction • This was exacerbated by the 1998 financial crisis

  43. THE PUTIN ADMINISTRATION • Russia’s economy recovered during Putin’s first term • Putin restricted press freedom and prosecuted political opponents (like Mikhail Khordokovdky) • He pursued tough measures against Chechen terrorism • Putin was reelected with over 70% of the vote in 2004 • He changed electoral laws in 2007 to favor United Russia

  44. THE MEDVEDEV ADMINISTRATION • Medvedev succeeded Putin in 2008 and continued his focus on • economic modernization and • political stability • He launched an anti-corruption campaign

  45. PRESENT-DAY RUSSIA • Russia enjoys decent GDP growth rates and manageable unemployment levels • Yeltsin’s 1993 constitution has stayed a central pillar of Russian politics • Democracy and post-materialism have gained traction among citizens as Russia’s transition further stabilizes

  46. DATES TO REMEMBER • Napoleon invades Russia • Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom • Bloody Sunday protests; start of 1905 revolution • Nicholas II abdicates • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government • Bolsheviks found the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics • Germany invades the Soviet Union in breach of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact • The Soviet Union sends troops into Hungary to suppress the Budapest uprising • The Soviet Council of Republics disbands; Soviet Union is dissolved • New constitution approved in a national referendum • Yeltsin orders a military invasion of Chechnya • June 24, 1812 • March 3, 1861 • January 22, 1905 • March 15, 1917 • November 8, 1918 • December 30, 1922 • June 22, 1941 • November 4, 1956 • December 25, 1991 • December 12, 1993 • December 11, 1994

  47. High Priority Political Groups • Charter 77 • Czech dissident group formed to pressure the regime to abide by the Helsinki Accords • CPRF Communist Party of the Russian Federation • advocates Soviet-era policies • Decembrists • Liberal army officers who launched a coup at Nicholas I’s inauguration in 1825 • Fair Russia • Liberal, pro-democracy political party in the current Russian Duma

  48. High Priority Political Groups • LDPR Liberal Democratic Party of Russia • ultranationalist political party • League of Struggle • Underground revolutionary organization founded by Lenin in 1895 • Oppositionists • Stalin’s term for Trotsky’s followers • Social Democrats • Marxist revolutionary group formed in 1898; split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks • Socialist Revolutionary Party • Populist revolutionary group with links to the Will of the People

  49. High Priority Political Groups • Solidarity • Polish labor union led by Lech Walesa; overthrew the Communist regime • United Russia • Russia’s center-right and dominant party • Volunteer Army (White army) • Conservative army that fought against the early Bolshevik government • Will of the People • Assassinated Alexander II in 1881

  50. 11 IMPORTANT TERRITORIES • Astrakhan • Central Asian khanate acquired under Ivan IV • Chechnya • Caucasus region; site of two separatist wars against the Russian Federation • Crimea • Peninsula to the north of the Black Sea contested by the Ottomans and imperial Russia; site of Crimean War • Dagestan • Chechnya invaded this region in 1999, prompting the Second Chechen War