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Edited 3/31/01. Soc. 100 Lecture 10.Chapter 3. Culture. 1. Culture. 1. Culture Overview: Immigration 2. Definition and Elements of Culture 3. Ethnocentrism<->Cultural Relativism 4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities 5. Explaining Culture-Models 6. Cultural Change . 2.

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culture
Culture

1. Culture Overview: Immigration

2. Definition and Elements of Culture

3. Ethnocentrism<->Cultural Relativism

4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities

5. Explaining Culture-Models

6. Cultural Change

2

1 culture overview immigration
America a land of

Diversity

1. Culture Overview: Immigration

Immigrants

-1985-94 US had 9 million immigrants for total of 20 million

-In past majority were European, based on quotas, 1965 act changed

to relatives of citizens, needed skills, political refugees (most now are from

Latin America, Caribbean and Asia

-in past most were uneducated today as educated as pop, 25% Pro vs. 15% pop

(result: “brain drain” from third world)

-many current immigrants are illegal, 1.5 to 2.5 mil

-Immigration is a world wide fact

cultures

-we export culture, TV, technology, etc

-we import culture, food, cars, etc.

-business is multinational

3

2 definition and elements of culture
*

Definition:

a design for living, shared understandings (about what is

important, use of technology, what artifacts and actions

mean etc.) people use to coordinate their activities.

2. Definition and Elements of Culture

For humans culture is a necessary--Instincts are inadequate

-no culture no human behavior

-limited human instincts thus socialization is necessary

-content of socialization varies place to place, human flex

-enculturation, emersion to extent culture seems "natural"

e.g. sex drive Dani (4-6 years post birth), Aranda (sex 3-5

X night), Thonga (Africa) find kissing discussing,

Trobrand islanders men clam fear of "gang rape"

4

2b cultural universals
*

examples: Group life, Organize families, incest(?),

cannibalism (?), kinship,

facial expressions, music/dance, dogs (95%)

Possible Source:

(1) Biological: universal, individual, (facial expressions)

(2) History: practice derived from common cultural

history. e.g.. common practices for western culture

(3) social/group necessity: e.g.. communication,

structure (norms, roles)

2b Cultural Universals

Care in seeing differiences; social necessities, historical continuity and biological inheritance--few are likely biological

5

slide6
*

2c Elements of Culture

(--a design for living--)

US Vietnamese Chinese------ Next

beliefs

( -shared ideas about how the world works-time, past, predictions--time)

Values,

( -broad, abstract, shared notions of desirable, respectable-individualism)

Norms and Sanctions,

(-Rules about should & should nots; mores, folkways,-)

Symbols*

(-cultural items that express, evoke meaning-)

Language*

(-shared spoken and written symbols-)

Technology

(-body of practical knowledge-)

6

test your beliefs and values
It is time to elect a world leader, and your vote counts.

Here's the scoop on the three leading candidates.

Candidate A: associates with ward heelers and consults with

astrologists.

He's had two mistresses. He chain smokes and

drinks 8 to 10 martinis a day.

Candidate B: was kicked out of office twice, sleeps until noon,

used opium in college and drinks a quart of brandy

every evening.

Candidate C: is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian, doesn't

smoke, drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had

any illicit affairs.

Which of these candidates is your choice??

Test your beliefs and values

“Test your Values: Candidate A is Franklin D. Roosevelt, Candidate B is Winston Churchill Candidate C is Adolph Hitler. The descriptions are accurate but incomplete—Hitler was a strong believer and user of astrology

7

test your beliefs and values1
Test your beliefs and values

“Specify Belief(s), Value(s) and Norms(s) related to this cartoon

7

beliefs
shared ideas about how the world works-time, past, predictions e.g

time—US Linear and progress

determine truth (science, magic, religion)

“common sense”

meaning and purpose of life

Beliefs

8

values
Some American Values

Individualism

Principles

Activists

Materialism, Etc. (discuss other values e.g.

patriotism)

Ideas about what is right, good, important etc

Values:

9

slide11
Mores: have to norms (negative is “taboo”)

ex:

Folkways: should norms

ex:

Undefined : no norms specified

ex:

Laws: codified norms

ex:

Sanctions (rewards and punishments): Formal, Informal

ex:

#Norms and Sanctions:

*

Rules about what people should or should not do in a context

10

symbols
*Symbols:

Cultural items that express-evoke meaning

Examples:

Objects (bible, flags,[condensed forms of beliefs], stop

sign, KKK, swastika)

Ordinary: cars, homes, coffins [US vs. Vietnamese]

Events: Birthdays vs. death days (Vietnamese)

11

language
shared spoken and/or written symbols,

their meaning (semantics) and the rules

for combining these symbols in useful

ways (syntax)

Language

• variation in sounds (English words vs. clicks of Bushman)

• thinking structures e.g. French "vous" indicates respect

"tu" indicates familiarity,

equality, intimacy

Vietnamese addressing

"anh" old men respect,

older brother, respect

"bae' young/respect,

fathers older brother

"chu" no respect,

younger brother

-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: does language determine, e.g. snow, camels,

Eskimo & war, British and India & Corporation.US cars

--- Some support in part but weak

12

3 ethnocentrism cultural relativism
*3. Ethnocentrism<->Cultural Relativism

-ethnocentrism; the tendency to negatively evaluate other

cultures in terms of one's own and to look

at the other culture as inferior

(Nacirema--complete article in workbook)

-culture shock; disorientation and stress experienced

with the unfamiliar (Anthropologist ex p95)

fear of food, people, loneliness (anomie)

-relativism; a culture must be understood from its

perspective, meanings, values, norms

13

4 cultural inconsistencies and diversities
*

-Variations in cultural integration

Types of societies--small , homogeneous (hi integration)

vs. large diverse (lo integration)

-Ideal vs. real

practice preachment pretense (see above)

real ideal (used by Soc)

defacto dejure (used legally)

-Patterned (norms of) evasion

normative ways to violate other norms

Subcultures and counter cultures

cultures within cultures (understandings, symbols..

4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities

Practices; behaviors performed by a group

Preachments; behaviors seen as important (should) by a group

Pretenses; behaviors group acts as if they have performed

14

quote
4a. Examples of Diversity

If we could shrink the Earth's population to a village of precisely 100

people. With all existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look

like this:

There would be 57 Asians, 21 Europeans, 14 from the Western Hemisphere

(North and South) and 8 Africans.

51 would be female; 49 would be male

70 would be non-white; 30 white.

70 would be non-Christian; 30 Christian.

50% of the entire world's wealth would be in the hands of only 6 people

and all 6 would be citizens of the United States.

80 would live in substandard housing.

70 would be unable to read.

50 would suffer from malnutrition.

1 would be near death , 1 would be near birth

Only 1 would have a college education.

No one would own a computer

No one would has attended CSUB

Quote

author unknown

15

4b in the summer of 1900 examples of change what a difference a century makes
The average life expectancy in the United States was 47. Only 14% of the homes in the United States had a bathtub.

Only 8% of the homes had a telephone.

A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost $11.

There were only 8,000 cars in the US and only 144 miles of paved roads. The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.

Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California.

With a mere 1.4 million residents, California was only the 21st most populated state in the Union.

The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.

The average wage in the US was 22 cents an hour.

The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.

A competent accountant could expect to earn $2,000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.

More than 95% of all births in the United States took place at home.

90% of all US physicians had no college education. Instead, they attended medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and by the government as "substandard."

Sugar cost four cents a pound. Eggs were 14 cents a dozen. Coffee cost 15 cents a pound.

Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo.

4b. In the summer of 1900... Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes

16

4c in the summer of 1900 examples of change what a difference a century makes
The five leading causes of death in the US were: 1. Pneumonia and influenza; 2. TB; 3. Diarrhea; 4. Heart disease; 5. Stroke.

The American flag had 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet.

The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was 30. The remote desert community was inhabited by only a handful of ranchers and their families.

Plutonium, insulin, and antibiotics hadn't been discovered yet. Scotch tape, crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented.

There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day.

One in 10 US adults couldn't read or write.

Only 6% of all Americans had graduated from high school.

Some medical authorities warned that professional seamstresses were apt to become sexually aroused by the steady rhythm, hour after hour of the sewing machine's foot pedals. They recommended slipping bromide, which was thought to diminish sexual desire, into the women's drinking water.

Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at corner drugstores. According to one pharmacist, "Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and the bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health.”

18% of households in the United States had at least one full-time servant or domestic.

There were about 230 reported murders in the US annually.

4c. In the summer of 1900... Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes

author unknown

17

5 explaining culture models
*

(a) Functionalists--part of integrated whole

Biological-culture is based on fulfilling

biological needs--monogamous family struct

Social-culture is based on fulfilling

social needs

-SF, Durkheim (religion)

Erikson (witch trials, Clinton Impeachment?)

Cultural ecologists, environment role in shaping

Harris (India & cows)

(b) Conflict theorists--struggle for power

compartmentalization of computer access

enhances UC power

Moore’s study of Chagga witchcraft found middle

wives identified as witches to get land

5. Explaining Culture--models

18

5a culture and the individual
-Individuals and groups create culture*

but also

--Culture has a tremendous power over

individuals perceptions, values, etc.

5a. Culture and the Individual

-Individuals and groups are prisoners of culture

French revolution developed notions

of radicals and conservatives due to

accidental seating of first parliament

leftist-----------centrist------------rightist

But now we try to force this categorization

on all political parties even when it doesn't fit

[fascists, libertarians..…]

19

5b creation of culture text
Culture has a source--it doesn't just spring forth!5b. Creation of Culture--Text?

Initial occurrence of individual act(s)

•experiments

•attempt to solve unique problem (disaster, war, etc.)

•attempt to abide by culture

difficult situation (e.g. means-ends problem)

abide by values (e.g. individualism, creativity)

Distinguish between creation (writing a play)

and

Acting in the play (range of behavior acceptable)

20

slide23
Technology can bring about change

“cultural gatekeepers” control access for new ideas--record distributors, publishers, newspaper editors, museum directors…

Cultural production is always a group effort

e.g. new modes of art (text page 107) medical (not all is sponsored?) research

We inherit beliefs but test against our experiences --example prevention or treatment of colds, pundits political views

Internet is current communication method for culture change, e.g. Matt Grudge, TWA 800...

5c. Production of Culture

21

6 cultural change
*

Sources

6. Cultural Change

-changes in the natural environment

-contact with other cultures (cargo cults)

-discovery (new knowledge about or uses for existing

knowledge)

-invention (restructuring old to get new)

-governmentally imposed (PRC)

Cultural Lag; delay in technology appearance and development/changes in beliefs to accommodate

Examples; frontier approach to environment, computers (internet) Fax, TV, reproductive technology

22

discussion question for groups
(1) Define and give examples (not in text or this outline) of the components of culture next slide (one US example and one from another culture):

ethnocentrism

cultural lag

subculture

symbols and language

real vs. ideal

patterned evasions

(2) How is culture explained? Give non text/workbook examples.

Discussion Question for Groups

24

group discussion for chapter 3
Group Discussion for Chapter 3

Compare and contrast US., Vietnamese and

one other culture (if possible) in terms of the components

of culture discussed in the text.

US Vietnam Mexico or China (?)

•Beliefs

•Values

•Norms

•Technology

•Language [symbols] )

25

next time
Next Time

Chapter 4 discussion

Should view "The Gods Must be Crazy" prior to Chapter 5

27

quiz chapter 3
1. Name two of the "basic elements of culture.

2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste”. This statement exhibits?

3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called?

4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called?

5. Using Marvin Harris' model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit?

6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's . This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called?

Don’t Print

Quiz Chapter 3

28

quiz answers chapter 3
1. Name two of the "basic elements of culture beliefs, Values, Norms, Symbols, Language

2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste" -This statement exhibits ethnocentrism

3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called patterned evasions p95

4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called subculture

5. Using Marvin Harris' (p98) model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit?Pullcultural ecologist

6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's . This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called cultural lag

Don’t Print

Quiz Answers Chapter 3

29

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