Edited 3/31/01. Soc. 100 Lecture 10.Chapter 3. Culture. 1. Culture. 1. Culture Overview: Immigration 2. Definition and Elements of Culture 3. Ethnocentrism<->Cultural Relativism 4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities 5. Explaining Culture-Models 6. Cultural Change . 2.
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1. Culture Overview: Immigration
2. Definition and Elements of Culture
3. Ethnocentrism<->Cultural Relativism
4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities
5. Explaining Culture-Models
6. Cultural Change
Diversity1. Culture Overview: Immigration
-1985-94 US had 9 million immigrants for total of 20 million
-In past majority were European, based on quotas, 1965 act changed
to relatives of citizens, needed skills, political refugees (most now are from
Latin America, Caribbean and Asia
-in past most were uneducated today as educated as pop, 25% Pro vs. 15% pop
(result: “brain drain” from third world)
-many current immigrants are illegal, 1.5 to 2.5 mil
-Immigration is a world wide fact
-we export culture, TV, technology, etc
-we import culture, food, cars, etc.
-business is multinational
a design for living, shared understandings (about what is
important, use of technology, what artifacts and actions
mean etc.) people use to coordinate their activities.2. Definition and Elements of Culture
For humans culture is a necessary--Instincts are inadequate
-no culture no human behavior
-limited human instincts thus socialization is necessary
-content of socialization varies place to place, human flex
-enculturation, emersion to extent culture seems "natural"
e.g. sex drive Dani (4-6 years post birth), Aranda (sex 3-5
X night), Thonga (Africa) find kissing discussing,
Trobrand islanders men clam fear of "gang rape"
examples: Group life, Organize families, incest(?),
cannibalism (?), kinship,
facial expressions, music/dance, dogs (95%)
(1) Biological: universal, individual, (facial expressions)
(2) History: practice derived from common cultural
history. e.g.. common practices for western culture
(3) social/group necessity: e.g.. communication,
structure (norms, roles)2b Cultural Universals
Care in seeing differiences; social necessities, historical continuity and biological inheritance--few are likely biological
2c Elements of Culture
(--a design for living--)
US Vietnamese Chinese------ Next
( -shared ideas about how the world works-time, past, predictions--time)
( -broad, abstract, shared notions of desirable, respectable-individualism)
Norms and Sanctions,
(-Rules about should & should nots; mores, folkways,-)
(-cultural items that express, evoke meaning-)
(-shared spoken and written symbols-)
(-body of practical knowledge-)
Here's the scoop on the three leading candidates.
Candidate A: associates with ward heelers and consults with
He's had two mistresses. He chain smokes and
drinks 8 to 10 martinis a day.
Candidate B: was kicked out of office twice, sleeps until noon,
used opium in college and drinks a quart of brandy
Candidate C: is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian, doesn't
smoke, drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had
any illicit affairs.
Which of these candidates is your choice??Test your beliefs and values
“Test your Values: Candidate A is Franklin D. Roosevelt, Candidate B is Winston Churchill Candidate C is Adolph Hitler. The descriptions are accurate but incomplete—Hitler was a strong believer and user of astrology
“Specify Belief(s), Value(s) and Norms(s) related to this cartoon
time—US Linear and progress
determine truth (science, magic, religion)
meaning and purpose of lifeBeliefs
Folkways: should norms
Undefined : no norms specified
Laws: codified norms
Sanctions (rewards and punishments): Formal, Informal
#Norms and Sanctions:
Rules about what people should or should not do in a context
their meaning (semantics) and the rules
for combining these symbols in useful
• variation in sounds (English words vs. clicks of Bushman)
• thinking structures e.g. French "vous" indicates respect
"tu" indicates familiarity,
"anh" old men respect,
older brother, respect
fathers older brother
"chu" no respect,
-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: does language determine, e.g. snow, camels,
Eskimo & war, British and India & Corporation.US cars
--- Some support in part but weak
-ethnocentrism; the tendency to negatively evaluate other
cultures in terms of one's own and to look
at the other culture as inferior
(Nacirema--complete article in workbook)
-culture shock; disorientation and stress experienced
with the unfamiliar (Anthropologist ex p95)
fear of food, people, loneliness (anomie)
-relativism; a culture must be understood from its
perspective, meanings, values, norms
-Variations in cultural integration
Types of societies--small , homogeneous (hi integration)
vs. large diverse (lo integration)
-Ideal vs. real
practice preachment pretense (see above)
real ideal (used by Soc)
defacto dejure (used legally)
-Patterned (norms of) evasion
normative ways to violate other norms
Subcultures and counter cultures
cultures within cultures (understandings, symbols..4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities
Practices; behaviors performed by a group
Preachments; behaviors seen as important (should) by a group
Pretenses; behaviors group acts as if they have performed
If we could shrink the Earth's population to a village of precisely 100
people. With all existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look
There would be 57 Asians, 21 Europeans, 14 from the Western Hemisphere
(North and South) and 8 Africans.
51 would be female; 49 would be male
70 would be non-white; 30 white.
70 would be non-Christian; 30 Christian.
50% of the entire world's wealth would be in the hands of only 6 people
and all 6 would be citizens of the United States.
80 would live in substandard housing.
70 would be unable to read.
50 would suffer from malnutrition.
1 would be near death , 1 would be near birth
Only 1 would have a college education.
No one would own a computer
No one would has attended CSUB
Only 8% of the homes had a telephone.
A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost $11.
There were only 8,000 cars in the US and only 144 miles of paved roads. The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.
Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California.
With a mere 1.4 million residents, California was only the 21st most populated state in the Union.
The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.
The average wage in the US was 22 cents an hour.
The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.
A competent accountant could expect to earn $2,000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.
More than 95% of all births in the United States took place at home.
90% of all US physicians had no college education. Instead, they attended medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and by the government as "substandard."
Sugar cost four cents a pound. Eggs were 14 cents a dozen. Coffee cost 15 cents a pound.
Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo.4b. In the summer of 1900... Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes
The American flag had 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet.
The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was 30. The remote desert community was inhabited by only a handful of ranchers and their families.
Plutonium, insulin, and antibiotics hadn't been discovered yet. Scotch tape, crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented.
There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day.
One in 10 US adults couldn't read or write.
Only 6% of all Americans had graduated from high school.
Some medical authorities warned that professional seamstresses were apt to become sexually aroused by the steady rhythm, hour after hour of the sewing machine's foot pedals. They recommended slipping bromide, which was thought to diminish sexual desire, into the women's drinking water.
Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at corner drugstores. According to one pharmacist, "Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and the bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health.”
18% of households in the United States had at least one full-time servant or domestic.
There were about 230 reported murders in the US annually.4c. In the summer of 1900... Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes
(a) Functionalists--part of integrated whole
Biological-culture is based on fulfilling
biological needs--monogamous family struct
Social-culture is based on fulfilling
-SF, Durkheim (religion)
Erikson (witch trials, Clinton Impeachment?)
Cultural ecologists, environment role in shaping
Harris (India & cows)
(b) Conflict theorists--struggle for power
compartmentalization of computer access
enhances UC power
Moore’s study of Chagga witchcraft found middle
wives identified as witches to get land5. Explaining Culture--models
--Culture has a tremendous power over
individuals perceptions, values, etc.5a. Culture and the Individual
-Individuals and groups are prisoners of culture
French revolution developed notions
of radicals and conservatives due to
accidental seating of first parliament
But now we try to force this categorization
on all political parties even when it doesn't fit
Initial occurrence of individual act(s)
•attempt to solve unique problem (disaster, war, etc.)
•attempt to abide by culture
difficult situation (e.g. means-ends problem)
abide by values (e.g. individualism, creativity)
Distinguish between creation (writing a play)
Acting in the play (range of behavior acceptable)
“cultural gatekeepers” control access for new ideas--record distributors, publishers, newspaper editors, museum directors…
Cultural production is always a group effort
e.g. new modes of art (text page 107) medical (not all is sponsored?) research
We inherit beliefs but test against our experiences --example prevention or treatment of colds, pundits political views
Internet is current communication method for culture change, e.g. Matt Grudge, TWA 800...
5c. Production of Culture
Sources6. Cultural Change
-changes in the natural environment
-contact with other cultures (cargo cults)
-discovery (new knowledge about or uses for existing
-invention (restructuring old to get new)
-governmentally imposed (PRC)
Cultural Lag; delay in technology appearance and development/changes in beliefs to accommodate
Examples; frontier approach to environment, computers (internet) Fax, TV, reproductive technology
symbols and language
real vs. ideal
(2) How is culture explained? Give non text/workbook examples.Discussion Question for Groups
Compare and contrast US., Vietnamese and
one other culture (if possible) in terms of the components
of culture discussed in the text.
US Vietnam Mexico or China (?)
•Language [symbols] )
Chapter 4 discussion
Should view "The Gods Must be Crazy" prior to Chapter 5
2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste”. This statement exhibits?
3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called?
4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called?
5. Using Marvin Harris' model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit?
6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's . This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called?
Don’t PrintQuiz Chapter 3
2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste" -This statement exhibits ethnocentrism
3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called patterned evasions p95
4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called subculture
5. Using Marvin Harris' (p98) model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit?Pullcultural ecologist
6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's . This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called cultural lag
Don’t PrintQuiz Answers Chapter 3